CODEINE SULFATE- codeine sulfate tablet
Lannett Company, Inc.
WARNING: ADDICTION, ABUSE, AND MISUSE; RISK EVALUATION AND MITIGATION STRATEGY (REMS); LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION; ACCIDENTAL INGESTION; ULTRA-RAPID METABOLISM OF CODEINE AND OTHER RISK FACTORS FOR LIFE-THREATENING RESPIRATORY DEPRESSION IN CHILDREN; NEONATAL OPIOID WITHDRAWAL SYNDROME; INTERACTIONS WITH DRUGS AFFECTING CYTOCHROME P450 ISOENZYMES; and RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH BENZODIAZEPINES OR OTHER CNS DEPRESSANTS
Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse
Codeine sulfate tablets expose patients and other users to the risks of opioid addiction, abuse, and misuse, which can lead to overdose and death. Assess each patient’s risk prior to prescribing codeine sulfate tablets, and monitor all patients regularly for the development of these behaviors and conditions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Opioid Analgesic Risk Evaluation and Mitigation Strategy (REMS)
To ensure that the benefits of opioid analgesics outweigh the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has required a REMS for these products [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2 )] . Under the requirements of the REMS, drug companies with approved opioid analgesic products must make REMS-compliant education programs available to healthcare providers. Healthcare providers are strongly encouraged to:
complete a REMS-compliant education program,
counsel patients and/or their caregivers, with every prescription, on safe use, serious risks, storage, and disposal of these products,
emphasize to patients and their caregivers the importance of reading the Medication Guide every time it is provided by their pharmacist, and
consider other tools to improve patient, household, and community safety.
Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression
Serious, life-threatening, or fatal respiratory depression may occur with use of codeine sulfate tablets. Monitor for respiratory depression, especially during initiation of codeine sulfate tablets or following a dose increase [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Accidental ingestion of even one dose of codeine sulfate tablets, especially by children, can result in a fatal overdose of codeine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Codeine and Other Risk Factors for Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Children
Life-threatening respiratory depression and death have occurred in children who received codeine. Most of the reported cases occurred following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy, and many of the children had evidence of being an ultra-rapid metabolizer of codeine due to a CYP2D6 polymorphism [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)]. Codeine sulfate tablets are contraindicated in children younger than 12 years of age and in children younger than 18 years of age following tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy [see Contraindications (4 )]. Avoid the use of codeine sulfate tablets in adolescents 12 to 18 years of age who have other risk factors that may increase their sensitivity to the respiratory depressant effects of codeine.
Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome
Prolonged use of codeine sulfate tablets during pregnancy can result in neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome, which may be life-threatening if not recognized and treated, and requires management according to protocols developed by neonatology experts. If opioid use is required for a prolonged period in a pregnant woman, advise the patient of the risk of neonatal opioid withdrawal syndrome and ensure that appropriate treatment will be available [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5)].
Interactions with Drugs Affecting Cytochrome P450 Isoenzymes
The effects of concomitant use or discontinuation of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with codeine are complex. Use of cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers, 3A4 inhibitors, or 2D6 inhibitors with codeine sulfate tablets requires careful consideration of the effects on the parent drug, codeine, and the active metabolite, morphine. [See Warnings and Precautions (5.6), Drug Interactions (7)].
Concomitant use of opioids with benzodiazepines or other central nervous system (CNS) depressants, including alcohol, may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.7), Drug Interactions (7)].
Reserve concomitant prescribing of codeine sulfate tablets and benzodiazepines or other CNS depressants for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.
Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation.
Codeine sulfate tablets are indicated for the management of mild to moderate pain, where treatment with an opioid is appropriate and for which alternative treatments are inadequate.
Limitations of Use
Because of the risks of addiction, abuse, and misuse with opioids, even at recommended doses [ s ee Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) ] , reserve codeine sulfate tablets for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options [e.g., non-opioid analgesics or opioid combination products]:
Have not been tolerated, or are not expected to be tolerated.
Have not provided adequate analgesia, or are not expected to provide adequate analgesia.
Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5) ] .
Initiate the dosing regimen for each patient individually, taking into account the patient’s severity of pain, patient response, prior analgesic treatment experience, and risk factors for addiction, abuse, and misuse [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) ].
Monitor patients closely for respiratory depression, especially within the first 24 to 72 hours of initiating therapy and following dosage increases with codeine sulfate tablets and adjust the dosage accordingly [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3) ] .
Initiating Treatment with Codeine Sulfate Tablets
Initiate treatment with codeine sulfate tablets in a dosing range of 15 to 60 mg every 4 hours as needed for pain. Adult doses of codeine sulfate tablets higher than 60 mg provide no further efficacy but are associated with greater adverse reactions. The maximum 24 hour dose is 360 mg.
C onversion from Other Opioids to Codeine Sulfate Tablets
There is inter-patient variability in the potency of opioid drugs and opioid formulations. Therefore, a conservative approach is advised when determining the total daily dosage of codeine sulfate tablets. It is safer to underestimate a patient’s 24-hour codeine sulfate tablets dosage than to overestimate the 24-hour codeine sulfate tablets dosage and manage an adverse reaction due to overdose.
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