CROMOLYN SODIUM — cromolyn sodium solution, concentrate
Ailex Pharmaceuticals, LLC
FOR ORAL USE ONLY-NOT FOR INHALATION OR INJECTION.
MUST BE DILUTED.
Each 5 mL ampule of Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate) contains 100 mg cromolyn sodium, USP, in purified water. Cromolyn sodium is a hygroscopic, white powder having little odor. It may leave a slightly bitter aftertaste. Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate) is clear, colorless, and sterile. It is intended for oral use.
Chemically, cromolyn sodium is disodium 5,5’-[(2-hydroxy-trimethylene) dioxy]bis[4-oxo-4H-1-benzopyran-2-carboxylate]. The empirical formula is C23 H14 Na2 O11 ; the molecular weight is 512.34. Its chemical structure is:
Pharmacologic Category: Mast cell stabilizer
Therapeutic Category: Antiallergic
In vitro and in vivo animal studies have shown that cromolyn sodium inhibits the release of mediators from sensitized mast cells. Cromolyn sodium acts by inhibiting the release of histamine and leukotrienes (SRS-A) from the mast cell.
Cromolyn sodium has no intrinsic vasoconstrictor, antihistamine, or glucocorticoid activity.
Cromolyn sodium is poorly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract. No more than 1% of an administered dose is absorbed by humans after oral administration, the remainder being excreted in the feces. Very little absorption of cromolyn sodium was seen after oral administration of 500 mg by mouth to each of 12 volunteers. From 0.28 to 0.50% of the administered dose was recovered in the first 24 hours of urinary excretion in 3 subjects. The mean urinary excretion of an administered dose over 24 hours in the remaining 9 subjects was 0.45%.
Four randomized, controlled clinical trials were conducted with Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate) in patients with either cutaneous or systemic mastocytosis; two of which utilized a placebo-controlled crossover design, one utilized an active-controlled (chlorpheniramine plus cimetidine) crossover design, and one utilized a placebo-controlled parallel group design. Due to the rare nature of this disease, only 36 patients qualified for study entry, of whom 32 were considered evaluable. Consequently, formal statistical analyses were not performed. Clinically significant improvement in gastrointestinal symptoms (diarrhea, abdominal pain) were seen in the majority of patients with some improvement also seen for cutaneous manifestations (urticaria, pruritus, flushing) and cognitive function. The benefit seen with Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate) 200 mg QID was similar to chlorpheniramine (4 mg QID) plus cimetidine (300 mg QID) for both cutaneous and systemic symptoms of mastocytosis.
Clinical improvement occurred within 2-6 weeks of treatment initiation and persisted for 2-3 weeks after treatment withdrawal. Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate) did not affect urinary histamine levels or peripheral eosinophilia, although neither of these variables appeared to correlate with disease severity. Positive clinical benefits were also reported for 37 of 51 patients who received Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate) in United States and foreign humanitarian programs.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE:
Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate) is indicated in the management of patients with mastocytosis. Use of this product has been associated with improvement in diarrhea, flushing, headaches, vomiting, urticaria, abdominal pain, nausea, and itching in some patients.
Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate) is contraindicated in those patients who have shown hypersensitivity to cromolyn sodium.
The recommended dosage should be decreased in patients with decreased renal or hepatic function. Severe anaphylactic reactions may occur rarely in association with cromolyn sodium administration.
In view of the biliary and renal routes of excretion of Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate), consideration should be given to decreasing the dosage of the drug in patients with impaired renal or hepatic function.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, and Impairment of Fertility:
In carcinogenicity studies in mice, hamsters, and rats, cromolyn sodium had no neoplastic effects at intraperitoneal doses up to 150 mg/kg three days per week for 12 months in mice, at intraperitoneal doses up to 53 mg/kg three days per week for 15 weeks followed by 17.5 mg/kg three days per week for 37 weeks in hamsters, and at subcutaneous doses up to 75 mg/kg six days per week for 18 months in rats. These doses in mice, hamsters, and rats are less than the maximum recommended daily oral dose in adults and children on a mg/m2 basis.
Cromolyn sodium showed no mutagenic potential in Ames Salmonella/microsome plate assays, mitotic gene conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and in an in vitro cytogenetic study in human peripheral lymphocytes.
In rats, cromolyn sodium showed no evidence of impaired fertility at subcutaneous doses up to 175 mg/kg in males (approximately equal to the maximum recommended daily oral dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis) and 100 mg/kg in females (less than the maximum recommended daily oral dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis).
Pregnancy Category B. In reproductive studies in pregnant mice, rats, and rabbits, cromolyn sodium produced no evidence of fetal malformations at subcutaneous doses up to 540 mg/kg in mice (approximately equal to the maximum recommended daily oral dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis) and 164 mg/kg in rats (less than the maximum recommended daily oral dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis) or at intravenous doses up to 485 mg/kg in rabbits (approximately 4 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis). There are, however, no adequate and well controlled studies in pregnant women.
Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Drug Interaction During Pregnancy:
In pregnant mice, cromolyn sodium alone did not cause significant increases in resorptions or major malformations at subcutaneous doses up to 540 mg/kg (approximately equal to the maximum recommended daily oral dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis). Isoproterenol alone increased both resorptions and major malformations (primarily cleft palate) at a subcutaneous dose of 2.7 mg/kg (approximately 7 times the maximum recommended daily inhalation dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis). The incidence of major malformations increased further when cromolyn sodium at a subcutaneous dose of 540 mg/kg was added to isoproterenol at a subcutaneous dose of 2.7 mg/kg. No such interaction was observed in rats or rabbits.
It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate) is administered to a nursing woman.
In adult rats no adverse effects of cromolyn sodium were observed at oral doses up to 6144 mg/kg (approximately 25 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose in adults on a mg/m2 basis). In neonatal rats, cromolyn sodium increased mortality at oral doses of 1000 mg/kg or greater (approximately 9 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose in infants on a mg/m2 basis) but not at doses of 300 mg/kg or less (approximately 3 times the maximum recommended daily oral dose in infants on a mg/m2 basis). Plasma and kidney concentrations of cromolyn after oral administration to neonatal rats were up to 20 times greater than those in older rats. In term infants up to six months of age, available clinical data suggest that the dose should not exceed 20 mg/kg/day. The use of this product in pediatric patients less than two years of age should be reserved for patients with severe disease in which the potential benefits clearly outweigh the risks.
Clinical studies of Cromolyn Sodium Oral Solution (Concentrate) did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
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