CYANOKIT- hydroxocobalamin injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
BTG INTERNATIONAL INC.
1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
CYANOKIT is indicated for the treatment of known or suspected cyanide poisoning.
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Important Dosage and Administration Instructions
- If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, administer CYANOKIT without delay.
- Comprehensive treatment of acute cyanide intoxication requires support of vital functions. Airway, ventilatory and circulatory support, oxygen administration, and management of seizures should not be delayed to administer CYANOKIT [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
- The expert advice of a regional poison control center may be obtained by calling 1-800-222-1222.
Identifying Patients with Cyanide Poisoning
Cyanide poisoning may result from inhalation, ingestion, or dermal exposure to various cyanide-containing compounds, including smoke from closed-space fires. Sources of cyanide poisoning include hydrogen cyanide and its salts, cyanogenic plants, aliphatic nitriles, and prolonged exposure to sodium nitroprusside.
The presence and extent of cyanide poisoning are often initially unknown. There is no widely available, rapid, confirmatory cyanide blood test. Treatment decisions must be made on the basis of clinical history and signs and symptoms of cyanide intoxication.
| Symptoms || Signs |
In some settings, panic symptoms including tachypnea and vomiting may mimic early cyanide poisoning signs. The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well.
Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. Prior to administration of CYANOKIT, smoke-inhalation victims should be assessed for the following:
- Exposure to fire or smoke in an enclosed area
- Presence of soot around the mouth, nose or oropharynx
- Altered mental status
Although hypotension is highly suggestive of cyanide poisoning, it is only present in a small percentage of cyanide-poisoned smoke inhalation victims. Also indicative of cyanide poisoning is a plasma lactate concentration ≥10 mmol/L (a value higher than that typically listed in the table of signs and symptoms of isolated cyanide poisoning because carbon monoxide associated with smoke inhalation also contributes to lactic acidemia). If cyanide poisoning is suspected, treatment should not be delayed to obtain a plasma lactate concentration.
Use with Other Cyanide Antidotes
The safety of administering other cyanide antidotes simultaneously with CYANOKIT has not been established. If a decision is made to administer another cyanide antidote with CYANOKIT, these drugs should not be administered concurrently in the same intravenous line [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
2.2 Recommended Dosing
The starting dose of hydroxocobalamin for adults is 5 g administered as an intravenous infusion over 15 minutes (approximately 15 mL/min). Administration of the entire vial constitutes a complete starting dose. Depending upon the severity of the poisoning and the clinical response, a second dose of 5 g may be administered by intravenous infusion for a total dose of 10 g. The rate of infusion for the second dose may range from 15 minutes (for patients in extremis) to two hours, as clinically indicated.
2.3 Preparation of Solution for Infusion
Reconstitute the 5 g vial of hydroxocobalamin with 200 mL of diluent (not provided with CYANOKIT) using the supplied sterile transfer spike. The recommended diluent is 0.9% Sodium Chloride injection (0.9% NaCl). Lactated Ringers injection and 5% Dextrose injection (D5W) have also been found to be compatible with hydroxocobalamin and may be used if 0.9% NaCl is not readily available. The line on the vial label represents 200 mL volume of diluent. Following the addition of diluent to the lyophilized powder, the vial should be repeatedly inverted or rocked, not shaken, for at least 60 seconds prior to infusion.
Visually inspect hydroxocobalamin solutions for particulate matter and color prior to administration. If the reconstituted solution is not dark red or if particulate matter is observed after the solution has been appropriately mixed, the solution should be discarded.
2.4 Incompatibility Information
Physical incompatibility (particle formation) and chemical incompatibility were observed with the mixture of hydroxocobalamin in solution with selected drugs that are frequently used in resuscitation efforts. Hydroxocobalamin is also chemically incompatible with sodium thiosulfate and sodium nitrite and has been reported to be incompatible with ascorbic acid. Therefore, these and other drugs should not be administered simultaneously through the same intravenous line as hydroxocobalamin.
Simultaneous administration of hydroxocobalamin and blood products (whole blood, packed red cells, platelet concentrate and/or fresh frozen plasma) through the same intravenous line is not recommended. However, blood products and hydroxocobalamin can be administered simultaneously using separate intravenous lines (preferably on contralateral extremities, if peripheral lines are being used).
2.5 Storage of Reconstituted Drug Product
Once reconstituted, hydroxocobalamin is stable for up to 6 hours at temperatures not exceeding 40°C (104°F). Do not freeze. Any reconstituted product not used by 6 hours should be discarded.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
CYANOKIT (hydroxocobalamin for injection) for intravenous infusion consists of 1 vial, containing 5 g lyophilized hydroxocobalamin dark red crystalline powder for injection. After reconstitution, the vial contains hydroxocobalamin for injection, 25 mg/mL [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16) for full kit description].
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Emergency Patient Management
In conjunction with CYANOKIT, treatment of cyanide poisoning must include immediate attention to airway patency, adequacy of oxygenation and hydration, cardiovascular support, and management of seizures. Consideration should be given to decontamination measures based on the route of exposure.
5.2 Risk of Anaphylactic and Other Hypersensitivity Reactions
Use caution in the management of patients with known anaphylactic reactions to hydroxocobalamin or cyanocobalamin. Consider alternative therapies, if available.
Allergic reactions may include: anaphylaxis, chest tightness, edema, urticaria, pruritus, dyspnea, and rash.
Allergic reactions including angioneurotic edema have also been reported in postmarketing experience.
5.3 Risk of Renal Injury
Cases of acute renal failure with acute tubular necrosis, renal impairment, and urine calcium oxalate crystals have been reported. In some situations, hemodialysis was required to achieve recovery. Regular monitoring of renal function, including but not limited to blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine, should be performed for 7 days following CYANOKIT therapy.
5.4 Risk of Increased Blood Pressure
Many patients with cyanide poisoning will be hypotensive; however, elevations in blood pressure have also been observed in known or suspected cyanide poisoning victims.
Elevations in blood pressure (≥180 mmHg systolic or ≥110 mmHg diastolic) were observed in approximately 18% of healthy subjects (not exposed to cyanide) receiving hydroxocobalamin 5 g and 28% of subjects receiving 10 g. Increases in blood pressure were noted shortly after the infusions were started; the maximal increase in blood pressure was observed toward the end of the infusion. These elevations were generally transient and returned to baseline levels within 4 hours of dosing. Monitor blood pressure during treatment with CYANOKIT.
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