The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of CYANOKIT. Because adverse reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency.
Cases of acute renal failure with acute tubular necrosis, renal impairment, and urine calcium oxalate crystals have been reported in patients treated with CYANOKIT.
Formal drug interaction studies have not been conducted with CYANOKIT.
Interference with Laboratory Tests
Because of its deep red color, hydroxocobalamin has been found to interfere with colorimetric determination of certain laboratory parameters (e.g., clinical chemistry, hematology, coagulation, and urine parameters). Be aware of this when reporting and interpreting laboratory results [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Available data from cases reported in the published literature and postmarketing surveillance with CYANOKIT use in pregnant women are insufficient to identify a drug-associated risk for major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal and fetal outcomes. There are risks to the pregnant woman and fetus associated with untreated cyanide poisoning (see Clinical Considerations). In animal studies, hydroxocobalamin administered to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis caused skeletal and soft tissue abnormalities, including alterations in the central nervous system, at exposures similar to human exposures at the therapeutic dose (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
Cyanide readily crosses the placenta. Cyanide poisoning is a medical emergency in pregnancy which can be fatal for the pregnant woman and fetus if left untreated. Life-sustaining therapy should not be withheld due to pregnancy.
In animal studies, pregnant rats and rabbits received CYANOKIT (75, 150, or 300 mg/kg/d) during the period of organogenesis. Following intraperitoneal dosing in rats and intravenous dosing in rabbits, maternal exposures were equivalent to 0.5, 1, or 2 times the human exposure at the therapeutic dose (based on AUC). In the high dose groups for both species, maternal toxicity occurred, and there was a reduced number of live fetuses due to embryofetal resorptions. In addition, decreased live fetal weight occurred in high dose rats, but not in rabbits. Incomplete skeletal ossification occurred in both rats and rabbits. In rats, two fetuses of the high dose group and two fetuses of the mid dose group (each from a different litter) had short, rudimentary or small front or hind legs. Rabbit litters and fetuses exhibited a dose-dependent increase in various gross soft tissue and skeletal anomalies. The main findings in rabbits were flexed, rigid flexor or medially rotated forelimbs or hindlimbs and domed heads at external examination; enlarged anterior or posterior fontanelles of the ventricles of the brain and flat, bowed or large ribs at skeletal examination; and dilated ventricles of the brain, and thick wall of the stomach at visceral examination. It is unknown if similar findings would be observed in rats and rabbits if CYANOKIT was administered as a single dose during any critical period of development.
Breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with CYANOKIT. There are no data to determine when breastfeeding may be safely restarted following administration of CYANOKIT. Hydroxocobalamin and Vitamin B12 (which is formed when hydroxocobalamin combines with cyanide) are present in human milk. There are no data on the effects of hydroxocobalamin on the breastfed infant or the effects on milk production.
Safety and effectiveness of CYANOKIT have not been established in this population. In non-US marketing experience, a dose of 70 mg/kg has been used to treat pediatric patients.
Approximately 50 known or suspected cyanide poisoning victims aged 65 or older received hydroxocobalamin in clinical studies. In general, the safety and effectiveness of hydroxocobalamin in these patients was similar to that of younger patients. No adjustment of dose is required in elderly patients.
The safety and effectiveness of CYANOKIT have not been studied in patients with renal impairment. Hydroxocobalamin and cyanocobalamin are eliminated unchanged by the kidneys.
The safety and effectiveness of CYANOKIT have not been studied in patients with hepatic impairment.
No data are available about overdose with CYANOKIT in adults. Should overdose occur, treatment should be directed to the management of symptoms. Hemodialysis may be effective in such a circumstance, but is only indicated in the event of significant hydroxocobalamin-related toxicity. Because of its deep red color, hydroxocobalamin may interfere with the performance of hemodialysis machines [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].
Hydroxocobalamin, the active ingredient in CYANOKIT, is cobinamide dihydroxide dihydrogen phosphate (ester), mono (inner salt), 3′-ester with 5,6-dimethyl-1-α-D-ribofuranosyl-1H-benzimidazole, an antidote. The drug substance is the hydroxylated active form of vitamin B12 and is a large molecule in which a trivalent cobalt ion is coordinated in four positions by a tetrapyrol (or corrin) ring. It is a hygroscopic, odorless, dark red, crystalline powder that is freely soluble in water and ethanol, and practically insoluble in acetone and diethyl ether. Hydroxocobalamin has a molecular weight of 1346.36 atomic mass units, an empirical formula of C62 H89 CoN13 O15 P and the following structural formula:
CYANOKIT (hydroxocobalamin for injection) for intravenous infusion is a cyanide antidote package which contains one colorless 250 mL glass vial, containing 5 g dark red lyophilized hydroxocobalamin, pH adjusted with hydrochloric acid, one transfer spike, one intravenous administration set, one quick use reference guide and one package insert.
The 5 g vial of hydroxocobalamin for injection is to be reconstituted with 200 mL of 0.9% NaCl, to give a dark red injectable solution (25 mg/mL). If 0.9% NaCl is not readily available, 200 mL of either Lactated Ringers injection or 5% Dextrose injection (D5W) may be used as the diluent. Diluent is not included in the CYANOKIT. The pH of the reconstituted product ranges from 3.5 to 6.0.
Cyanide is an extremely toxic poison. In the absence of rapid and adequate treatment, exposure to a high dose of cyanide can result in death within minutes due to the inhibition of cytochrome oxidase resulting in arrest of cellular respiration. Specifically, cyanide binds rapidly with cytochrome a3, a component of the cytochrome c oxidase complex in mitochondria. Inhibition of cytochrome a3 prevents the cell from using oxygen and forces anaerobic metabolism, resulting in lactate production, cellular hypoxia and metabolic acidosis. In massive acute cyanide poisoning, the mechanism of toxicity may involve other enzyme systems as well. Signs and symptoms of acute systemic cyanide poisoning may develop rapidly within minutes, depending on the route and extent of cyanide exposure.
The action of CYANOKIT in the treatment of cyanide poisoning is based on its ability to bind cyanide ions. Each hydroxocobalamin molecule can bind one cyanide ion by substituting it for the hydroxo ligand linked to the trivalent cobalt ion, to form cyanocobalamin, which is then excreted in the urine.
Administration of CYANOKIT to cyanide-poisoned patients with the attendant formation of cyanocobalamin resulted in increases in blood pressure and variable changes in heart rate upon initiation of hydroxocobalamin infusions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
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