CYCLOBENZAPRINE HYDROCHLORIDE- cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride tablet, film coated
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride, USP is a tricyclic amine salt which is white to off white, odourless, crystalline powder with the molecular formula C 20 H 21 N • HCl and a molecular weight of 311.9. It has a melting point of 217°C, and a pKa of 8.47 at 25°C. It is freely soluble in water, in alcohol and in methanol, sparingly soluble in isopropanol, slightly soluble in chloroform and in methylene chloride, insoluble in n-hexane. If aqueous solutions are made alkaline, the free base separates. Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride is designated chemically as 3-(5H -dibenzo[a,d] cyclohepten-5-ylidene)- N,N -dimethyl-1-propanamine hydrochloride, and has the following structural formula:
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride tablets, USP are available as 5 mg, 7.5 mg and 10 mg tablets for oral administration. Each 5 mg, 7.5 mg and 10 mg tablet contains cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride and the following inactive ingredients: crospovidone, hypromellose, lactose anhydrous, macrogol, magnesium stearate, polysorbate 80, pregelatinized starch, silicified microcrystalline cellulose, titanium dioxide. The tablets of 5 mg and 10 mg also contain D&C Yellow #10 Aluminum Lake and FD&C Yellow #6 Sunset Yellow FCF Aluminum Lake. In addition, the 5 mg tablets contain FD&C Blue #2/INDIGO Carmine Aluminum Lake.
Cyclobenzaprine reduced or abolished skeletal muscle hyperactivity in several animal models. Animal studies indicate that cyclobenzaprine does not act at the neuromuscular junction or directly on skeletal muscle. Such studies show that cyclobenzaprine acts primarily within the central nervous system at brain stem as opposed to spinal cord levels, although its action on the latter may contribute to its overall skeletal muscle relaxant activity. Evidence suggests that the net effect of cyclobenzaprine is a reduction of tonic somatic motor activity, influencing both gamma (γ) and alpha (α) motor systems.
Pharmacological studies in animals showed a similarity between the effects of cyclobenzaprine and the structurally related tricyclic antidepressants, including reserpine antagonism, norepinephrine potentiation, potent peripheral and central anticholinergic effects, and sedation. Cyclobenzaprine caused slight to moderate increase in heart rate in animals.
Estimates of mean oral bioavailability of cyclobenzaprine range from 33% to 55%. Cyclobenzaprine exhibits linear pharmacokinetics over the dose range 2.5 mg to 10 mg, and is subject to enterohepatic circulation. It is highly bound to plasma proteins. Drug accumulates when dosed 3 times a day, reaching steady-state within 3 to 4 days at plasma concentrations about 4-fold higher than after a single dose. At steady-state in healthy subjects receiving 10 mg t.i.d. (n = 18), peak plasma concentration was 25.9 ng/mL (range, 12.8 to 46.1 ng/mL), and area under the concentration-time (AUC) curve over an 8-hour dosing interval was 177 ng·hr/mL (range, 80 to 319 ng·hr/mL).
Cyclobenzaprine is extensively metabolized, and is excreted primarily as glucuronides via the kidney. Cytochromes P450 3A4, 1A2, and, to a lesser extent, 2D6, mediate N-demethylation, one of the oxidative pathways for cyclobenzaprine. Cyclobenzaprine is eliminated quite slowly, with an effective half-life of 18 hours (range 8 to 37 hours; n = 18); plasma clearance is 0.7 L/min.
In a pharmacokinetic study in elderly individuals (≥ 65 yrs old), mean (n = 10) steady-state cyclobenzaprine AUC values were approximately 1.7-fold (171 ng·hr/mL, range 96.1 to 255.3) higher than those seen in a group of 18 younger adults (101.4 ng·hr/mL, range 36.1 to 182.9) from another study. Elderly male subjects had the highest observed mean increase, approximately 2.4-fold (198.3 ng·hr/mL, range 155.6 to 255.3 vs. 83.2 ng·hr/mL, range 41.1 to 142.5 for younger males) while levels in elderly females were increased to a much lesser extent, approximately 1.2-fold (143.8 ng·hr/mL, range 96.1 to 196.3 vs. 115.9 ng·hr/mL, range 36.1 to 182.9 for younger females).
In light of these findings, therapy with cyclobenzaprine in the elderly should be initiated with a 5 mg dose and titrated slowly upward.
In a pharmacokinetic study of 16 subjects with hepatic impairment (15 mild, 1 moderate per Child-Pugh score), both AUC and C max were approximately double the values seen in the healthy control group. Based on the findings, cyclobenzaprine should be used with caution in subjects with mild hepatic impairment starting with the 5 mg dose and titrating slowly upward. Due to the lack of data in subjects with more severe hepatic insufficiency, the use of cyclobenzaprine in subjects with moderate to severe impairment is not recommended.
No significant effect on plasma levels or bioavailability of cyclobenzaprine or aspirin was noted when single or multiple doses of the two drugs were administered concomitantly. Concomitant administration of cyclobenzaprine and naproxen or diflunisal was well tolerated with no reported unexpected adverse effects. However combination therapy of cyclobenzaprine with naproxen was associated with more side effects than therapy with naproxen alone, primarily in the form of drowsiness. No well controlled studies have been performed to indicate that cyclobenzaprine enhances the clinical effect of aspirin or other analgesics, or whether analgesics enhance the clinical effect of cyclobenzaprine in acute musculoskeletal conditions.
Eight double-blind controlled clinical studies were performed in 642 patients comparing cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 10 mg, diazepam, and placebo. Muscle spasm, local pain and tenderness, limitation of motion, and restriction in activities of daily living were evaluated. In three of these studies there was a significantly greater improvement with cyclobenzaprine than with diazepam, while in the other studies the improvement following both treatments was comparable.
Although the frequency and severity of adverse reactions observed in patients treated with cyclobenzaprine were comparable to those observed in patients treated with diazepam, dry mouth was observed more frequently in patients treated with cyclobenzaprine and dizziness more frequently in those treated with diazepam. The incidence of drowsiness, the most frequent adverse reaction, was similar with both drugs.
The efficacy of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg was demonstrated in two 7-day, double-blind, controlled clinical trials enrolling 1,405 patients. One study compared cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg and 10 mg t.i.d. to placebo; and a second study compared cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg and 2.5 mg t.i.d. to placebo. Primary endpoints for both trials were determined by patient-generated data and included global impression of change, medication helpfulness, and relief from starting backache. Each endpoint consisted of a score on a 5-point rating scale (from 0 or worst outcome to 4 or best outcome). Secondary endpoints included a physician’s evaluation of the presence and extent of palpable muscle spasm.
Comparisons of cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg and placebo groups in both trials established the statistically significant superiority of the 5 mg dose for all three primary endpoints at day 8 and, in the study comparing 5 mg and 10 mg, at day 3 or 4 as well. A similar effect was observed with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 10 mg (all endpoints). Physician-assessed secondary endpoints also showed that cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 5 mg was associated with a greater reduction in palpable muscle spasm than placebo.
Analysis of the data from controlled studies shows that cyclobenzaprine produces clinical improvement whether or not sedation occurs.
A post-marketing surveillance program was carried out in 7,607 patients with acute musculoskeletal disorders, and included 297 patients treated with cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride 10 mg for 30 days or longer. The overall effectiveness of cyclobenzaprine was similar to that observed in the double-blind controlled studies; the overall incidence of adverse effects was less ( see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Improvement is manifested by relief of muscle spasm and its associated signs and symptoms, namely, pain, tenderness, limitation of motion, and restriction in activities of daily living.
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride tablets should be used only for short periods (up to 2 or 3 weeks) because adequate evidence of effectiveness for more prolonged use is not available and because muscle spasm associated with acute, painful musculoskeletal conditions is generally of short duration and specific therapy for longer periods is seldom warranted.
Cyclobenzaprine hydrochloride tablets have not been found effective in the treatment of spasticity associated with cerebral or spinal cord disease, or in children with cerebral palsy.
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