Daptomycin (Page 7 of 10)
Daptomycin belongs to the cyclic lipopeptide class of antibacterials. Daptomycin has clinical utility in the treatment of infections caused by aerobic, Gram-positive bacteria. The in vitro spectrum of activity of daptomycin encompasses most clinically relevant Gram-positive pathogenic bacteria.
Daptomycin exhibits rapid, concentration-dependent bactericidal activity against Gram-positive bacteria in vitro. This has been demonstrated both by time-kill curves and by MBC/MIC (minimum bactericidal concentration/minimum inhibitory concentration) ratios using broth dilution methodology. Daptomycin maintained bactericidal activity in vitro against stationary phase S. aureus in simulated endocardial vegetations. The clinical significance of this is not known.
Mechanism of Action
Daptomycin binds to bacterial cell membranes and causes a rapid depolarization of membrane potential. This loss of membrane potential causes inhibition of DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis, which results in bacterial cell death.
The mechanism(s) of daptomycin resistance is not fully understood. Currently, there are no known transferable elements that confer resistance to daptomycin.
Interactions with Other Antibacterials
In vitro studies have investigated daptomycin interactions with other antibacterials. Antagonism, as determined by kill curve studies, has not been observed. In vitro synergistic interactions of daptomycin with aminoglycosides, β-lactam antibacterials, and rifampin have been shown against some isolates of staphylococci (including some methicillin-resistant isolates) and enterococci (including some vancomycin-resistant isolates).
Complicated Skin and Skin Structure Infection (cSSSI) Trials in Adults
The emergence of daptomycin non-susceptible isolates occurred in 2 infected patients across the set of Phase 2 and pivotal Phase 3 clinical trials of cSSSI in adult patients. In one case, a non-susceptible S. aureus was isolated from a patient in a Phase 2 trial who received daptomycin at less than the protocol-specified dose for the initial 5 days of therapy. In the second case, a non-susceptible Enterococcus faecalis was isolated from a patient with an infected chronic decubitus ulcer who was enrolled in a salvage trial.
S. aureus Bacteremia/Endocarditis and Other Post-Approval Trials in Adults
In subsequent clinical trials in adult patients, non-susceptible isolates were recovered. S. aureus was isolated from a patient in a compassionate-use trial and from 7 patients in the S. aureus bacteremia/endocarditis trial [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]. An E. faecium was isolated from a patient in a vancomycin-resistant enterococci trial.
Daptomycin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms both in vitro and in clinical infections [see Indications and Usage (1)].
- Gram-Positive Bacteria
- Enterococcus faecalis
- (vancomycin-susceptible isolates only)
- Staphylococcus aureus
- (including methicillin-resistant isolates)
- Streptococcus agalactiae
- Streptococcus dysgalactiae
- subsp. equisimilis
- Streptococcus pyogenes
- The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for daptomycin against isolates of similar genus or organism group. However, the efficacy of daptomycin in treating clinical infections caused by these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.
- Gram-Positive Bacteria
- Corynebacterium jeikeium
- Enterococcus faecalis
- (vancomycin-resistant isolates)
- Enterococcus faecium
- (including vancomycin-resistant isolates)
- Staphylococcus epidermidis
- (including methicillin-resistant isolates)
- Staphylococcus haemolyticus
For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Long-term carcinogenicity studies in animals have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of daptomycin. However, neither mutagenic nor clastogenic potential was found in a battery of genotoxicity tests, including the Ames assay, a mammalian cell gene mutation assay, a test for chromosomal aberrations in Chinese hamster ovary cells, an in vivo micronucleus assay, an in vitro DNA repair assay, and an in vivo sister chromatid exchange assay in Chinese hamsters.
Daptomycin did not affect the fertility or reproductive performance of male and female rats when administered intravenously at doses of 25, 75, or 150 mg/kg/day, which is approximately up to 9 times the estimated human exposure level based upon AUCs (or approximately up to 4 times the recommended human dose of 6 mg/kg based on body surface area comparison).
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
In animals, daptomycin administration has been associated with effects on skeletal muscle. However, there were no changes in cardiac or smooth muscle. Skeletal muscle effects were characterized by microscopic degenerative/regenerative changes and variable elevations in creatine phosphokinase (CPK). No fibrosis or rhabdomyolysis was evident in repeat-dose studies up to the highest doses tested in rats (150 mg/kg/day) and dogs (100 mg/kg/day). The degree of skeletal myopathy showed no increase when treatment was extended from 1 month to up to 6 months. Severity was dose-dependent. All muscle effects, including microscopic changes, were fully reversible within 30 days following the cessation of dosing.
In adult animals, effects on peripheral nerve (characterized by axonal degeneration and frequently accompanied by significant losses of patellar reflex, gag reflex, and pain perception) were observed at daptomycin doses higher than those associated with skeletal myopathy. Deficits in the dogs’ patellar reflexes were seen within 2 weeks after the start of treatment at 40 mg/kg/day (9 times the human Cmax at the 6 mg/kg/day dose), with some clinical improvement noted within 2 weeks after the cessation of dosing. However, at 75 mg/kg/day for 1 month, 7 of 8 dogs failed to regain full patellar reflex responses within a 3-month recovery period. In a separate study in dogs receiving doses of 75 and 100 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, minimal residual histological changes were noted at 6 months after the cessation of dosing. However, recovery of peripheral nerve function was evident.
Tissue distribution studies in rats showed that daptomycin is retained in the kidney but appears to penetrate the blood-brain barrier only minimally following single and multiple doses.
Target organs of daptomycin-related effects in 7-week-old juvenile dogs were skeletal muscle and nerve, the same target organs as in adult dogs. In juvenile dogs, nerve effects were noted at lower daptomycin blood concentrations than in adult dogs following 28 days of dosing. In contrast to adult dogs, juvenile dogs also showed evidence of effects in nerves of the spinal cord as well as peripheral nerves after 28 days of dosing. No nerve effects were noted in juvenile dogs following 14 days of dosing at doses up to 75 mg/kg/day.
Administration of daptomycin to 7-week-old juvenile dogs for 28 days at doses of 50 mg/kg/day produced minimal degenerative effects on the peripheral nerve and spinal cord in several animals, with no corresponding clinical signs. A dose of 150 mg/kg/day for 28 days produced minimal degeneration in the peripheral nerve and spinal cord as well as minimal to mild degeneration of the skeletal muscle in a majority of animals, accompanied by slight to severe muscle weakness evident in most dogs. Following a 28-day recovery phase, microscopic examination revealed recovery of the skeletal muscle and the ulnar nerve effects, but nerve degeneration in the sciatic nerve and spinal cord was still observed in all 150 mg/kg/day dogs.
Following once-daily administration of daptomycin to juvenile dogs for 28 days, microscopic effects in nerve tissue were noted at a Cmax value of 417 mcg/mL, which is approximately 3-fold less than the Cmax value associated with nerve effects in adult dogs treated once daily with daptomycin for 28 days (1308 mcg/mL).
Neonatal dogs (4 to 31 days old) were more sensitive to daptomycin-related adverse nervous system and/or muscular system effects than either juvenile or adult dogs. In neonatal dogs, adverse nervous system and/or muscular system effects were associated with a Cmax value approximately 3-fold less than the Cmax in juvenile dogs, and 9-fold less than the Cmax in adult dogs following 28 days of dosing. At a dose of 25 mg/kg/day with associated Cmax and AUCinf values of 147 mcg/mL and 717 mcg•h/mL, respectively (1.6 and 1.0-fold the adult human Cmax and AUC, respectively, at the 6 mg/kg/day dose), mild clinical signs of twitching and one incidence of muscle rigidity were observed with no corresponding effect on body weight. These effects were found to be reversible within 28 days after treatment had stopped.
At higher dose levels of 50 and 75 mg/kg/day with associated Cmax and AUCinf values of ≥321 mcg/mL and ≥1470 mcg•h/mL, respectively, marked clinical signs of twitching, muscle rigidity in the limbs, and impaired use of limbs were observed. Resulting decreases in body weights and overall body condition at doses ≥50 mg/kg/day necessitated early discontinuation by postnatal day (PND) 19.
Histopathological assessment did not reveal any daptomycin-related changes in the peripheral and central nervous system tissue, as well as in the skeletal muscle or other tissues assessed, at any dose level.
No adverse effects were observed in the dogs that received daptomycin at 10 mg/kg/day, the NOAEL, with associated Cmax and AUCinf values of 62 mcg/mL and 247 mcg•h/mL, respectively (or 0.6 and 0.4-fold the adult human Cmax and AUC, respectively at the 6 mg/kg dose).
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