DEMECLOCYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE- demeclocycline hydrochloride tablet
Amneal Pharmaceuticals of New York LLC
Demeclocycline hydrochloride is an antibiotic isolated from a mutant strain of Streptomyces aureofaciens. Chemically it is 7-Chloro-4-(dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,6,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrochloride.
Its structural formula is:
Demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets, USP, for oral administration, contain 150 mg or 300 mg of demeclocycline hydrochloride, USP and the following inactive ingredients: alginic acid, corn starch, ethylcellulose, FD&C Red 40 aluminum lake, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, sodium lauryl sulfate, talc and titanium dioxide. In addition, the 150 mg tablet contains D&C Red 27 aluminum lake.
The absorption of demeclocycline is slower than that of tetracycline. The time to reach the peak concentration is about 4 hours. After a 150 mg oral dose of demeclocycline tablet, the mean concentrations at 1 hour and 3 hours are 0.46 mcg/mL and 1.22 mcg/mL (n=6) respectively. The serum half-life ranges between 10 and 16 hours. When demeclocycline hydrochloride is given concomitantly with some dairy products, or antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium, the extent of absorption is reduced by more than 50%. Demeclocycline hydrochloride penetrates well into various body fluids and tissues. The percent of demeclocycline hydrochloride bound to plasma protein is about 40% using a dialysis equilibrium method and 90% using an ultra-filtration method. Demeclocycline hydrochloride, like other tetracyclines, is concentrated in the liver and excreted into the bile where it is found in much higher concentrations than in the blood. The rate of demeclocycline hydrochloride renal clearance (35 mL/min/1.73 m2) is less than half that of tetracycline. Following a single 150 mg dose of demeclocycline hydrochloride in normal volunteers, 44% (n=8) was excreted in urine and 13% and 46%, respectively, were excreted in feces in two patients within 96 hours as active drug.
Mechanism of Action
The tetracyclines are primarily bacteriostatic and are thought to exert their antimicrobial effect by the inhibition of protein synthesis. The tetracyclines, including demeclocycline have a similar antimicrobial spectrum of activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms.
Mechanism(s) of Resistance
Resistance to tetracyclines may be mediated by efflux, alteration in the target site of tetracycline, enzymatic inactivation, and decreased bacterial permeability to the tetracycline or a combination of these mechanisms.
Cross-resistance between antibiotics of the tetracycline family occurs.
Demeclocycline has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, in vitro and/or in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.
Because isolates of the following groups of gram-negative bacteria have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility testing are especially recommended:
Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum
Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue
Susceptibility Test Methods
For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.
Demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets are indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions below:
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox and tick fevers caused by rickettsiae;
Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae
Lymphogranuloma venereum due to Chlamydia trachomatis
Psittacosis (Ornithosis) due to Chlamydia psittaci
Trachoma due to Chlamydia trachomatis , although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence
Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis
Nongonococcal urethritis in adults caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum or Chlamydia trachomatis
Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis
Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi
Plague due to Yersinia pestis
Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis
Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae
Campylobacter fetus infections cause by Campylobacter fetus
Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin);
Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis
Granuloma inguinale caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis
Demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for treatment of infections by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae
Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species
Demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae
Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus. (Note: Tetracyclines, including demeclocycline, are not the drugs of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection).
When penicillin is contraindicated, tetracyclines, including demeclocycline hydrochloride, are alternative drugs in the treatment of the following infections:
Uncomplicated urethritis in men due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and for the treatment of other uncomplicated gonococcal infections
Infections in women caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum
Yaws caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue
Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes
Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis
Vincent’s infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme
Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii
Clostridial diseases caused by Clostridium species
In acute intestinal amebiasis, demeclocycline hydrochloride may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.
In severe acne, demeclocycline hydrochloride may be a useful adjunctive therapy.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets and other antibacterial drugs, demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
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