Standardized susceptibility test procedures require the use of laboratory controls to monitor and ensure the accuracy and precision of supplies and reagents used in the assay, and the techniques of the individuals performing the test.1,2,3,4 Standard tetracycline powder should provide the following range of MIC values noted in Table 2. For the diffusion technique using the 30 mcg tetracycline disk, the criteria in Table 2 should be achieved.
|QC Strain|| |
Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations
|Escherichia coli ATC* 25922||0.5 to 2||18 to 25|
|Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213||0.12 to 1||—–|
|Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923||—–||24 to 30|
|Haemophilus influenzae ATCC 49247||4 to 32||14 to 22|
|Neisseria gonorrhoeae ATCC 49226||0.25 to 1||30 to 42|
|Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619||0.06 to 0.5||27 to 31|
* ATCC = American Type Culture Collection
Demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets USP is indicated in the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions below:
Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by rickettsiae; Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae ; Lymphogranuloma venereum due to Chlamydia trachomatis ; Psittacosis (Ornithosis) due to Chlamydia psittaci ; Trachoma due to Chlamydia trachomatis , although the infectious agent is not always eliminated, as judged by immunofluorescence; Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis ; Nongonococcal urethritis in adults caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum or Chlamydia trachomatis ; Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis ;
Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi ;
Plague due to Yersinia pestis ;
Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis ;
Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae ;
Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus ;
Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin);
Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis ;
Granuloma inguinale caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis ;
Demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets USP is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
Escherichia coli ;
Enterobacter aerogenes ;
Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae ;
Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.
Demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets USP is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae;
Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus.
(Note: Tetracyclines, including demeclocycline, are not the drugs of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infection.)
When penicillin is contraindicated, tetracyclines, including demeclocycline hydrochloride, are alternative drugs in the treatment of the following infections:
Uncomplicated urethritis in men due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae , and for the treatment of other uncomplicated gonococcal infections;
Infections in women caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae ;
Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum ;
Yaws caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue ;
Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes ;
Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis ;
Vincent’s infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme ;
Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii ;
Clostridial diseases caused by Clostridium species.
In acute intestinal amebiasis, demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets USP may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.
In severe acne, demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets USP may be a useful adjunctive therapy.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets USP and other antibacterial drugs, demeclocycline hydrochloride tablets USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
This drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines or any of the components of the product formulation.
DEMECLOCYCLINE HYDROCHLORIDE, LIKE OTHER TETRACYCLINE-CLASS ANTIBIOTICS, CAN CAUSE FETAL HARM WHEN ADMINISTERED TO A PREGNANT WOMAN. IF ANY TETRACYCLINE IS USED DURING PREGNANCY, OR IF THE PATIENT BECOMES PREGNANT WHILE TAKING THESE DRUGS, THE PATIENT SHOULD BE APPRISED OF THE POTENTIAL HAZARD TO THE FETUS.
THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT (LAST HALF OF PREGNANCY, INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD TO THE AGE OF 8 YEARS) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs but has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. TETRACYCLINE DRUGS, THEREFORE, SHOULD NOT BE USED DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT UNLESS OTHER DRUGS ARE NOT LIKELY TO BE EFFECTIVE OR ARE CONTRAINDICATED.
All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in premature human infants given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.
Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has also been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. The anti-anabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. While this is not a problem in those with normal renal function, in patients with significantly impaired function, higher serum levels of tetracycline may lead to azotemia, hyperphosphatemia, and acidosis.
If renal impairment exists, even usual oral or parenteral doses may lead to excessive systemic accumulation of the drug and possible liver toxicity. Under such conditions, lower than usual total doses are indicated and, if therapy is prolonged, serum level determinations of the drug may be advisable.
Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Phototoxic reactions can occur in individuals taking demeclocycline, and are characterized by severe burns or exposed surfaces resulting from direct exposure of patients to sunlight during therapy with moderate or large doses of demeclocycline. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of erythema of the skin.
Administration of demeclocycline hydrochloride has resulted in appearance of the diabetes insipidus syndrome (polyuria, polydipsia and weakness) in some patients on long-term therapy. The syndrome has been shown to be nephrogenic, dose-dependent and reversible on discontinuance of therapy. Patients who are experiencing central nervous system symptoms associated with demeclocycline therapy should be cautioned about driving vehicles or using hazardous machinery while on demeclocycline therapy.
Clostridium difficile associated with diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including demeclocycline hydrochloride, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.