Long-term studies in animals to evaluate carcinogenic potential of demeclocycline HCl have not been conducted. However, there has been evidence of oncogenic activity in rats in studies with the related antibiotics oxytetracycline (adrenal and pituitary tumors) and minocycline (thyroid tumors).
Although mutagenicity studies of demeclocycline HCl have not been conducted, positive results in in vitro mammalian cell assays (i.e., mouse lymphoma and Chinese hamster lung cells) have been reported for related antibiotics (tetracycline HCl and oxytetracycline). (See WARNINGS and ANIMAL PHARMACOLOGY AND ANIMAL TOXICOLOGY.)
Demeclocycline HCl had no effect on fertility when administered in the diet to male and female rats at a daily intake of 45 times the human dose.
Pregnancy Category D
(See WARNINGS.) Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues, and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeletal development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy.
The effect of tetracyclines on labor and delivery is unknown.
Tetracyclines are excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from the tetracyclines, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother (See WARNINGS.)
The following reactions have been reported in patients receiving tetracyclines:
Gastrointestinal: Anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, pancreatitis and inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, increases in liver enzymes, and hepatic toxicity has been reported rarely.
Rarely, hepatitis and liver failure have been reported. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines.
Instances of esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving oral tetracyclines. Most of the patients were reported to have taken the medication immediately before lying down. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Skin: Maculopapular and erythematous rashes, erythema multiforme. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported but is uncommon. Fixed drug eruptions and Stevens-Johnson syndrome have been reported rarely. Lesions occurring on the glans penis have caused balanitis. Pigmentation of the skin and mucous membranes has also been reported. Photosensitivity is discussed above. (See WARNINGS.)
Renal toxicity: Acute renal failure, rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose related, nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. (see WARNINGS.)
Hypersensitivity reactions: Urticaria, angioneurotic edema, polyarthralgia, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, pericarditis exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus, lupus-like syndrome, pulmonary infiltrates with eosinophilia.
Hematologic: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia and eosinophilia have been reported.
CNS: Pseudotumor cerebri (benign intracranial hypertension) in adults and bulging fontanels in infants (see PRECAUTIONS — General). Dizziness, headache, tinnitus, and visual disturbances have been reported. Myasthenic syndrome has been reported rarely.
Other: When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of thyroid glands. No abnormalities of thyroid function studies are known to occur. Very rare cases of abnormal thyroid function have been reported.
Tooth discoloration has occurred in pediatric patients less than 8 years of age (see WARNINGS), and has been reported rarely in adults.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Amneal Pharmaceuticals at 1-877-835-5472 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Tetracyclines are not removed in significant quantities by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.
Therapy should be continued for at least 24 to 48 hours after symptoms and fever have subsided.
Concomitant therapy: Absorption of tetracyclines is impaired by antacids containing aluminum, calcium, or magnesium and by iron-containing preparations. Foods and some dairy products also interfere with absorption. Oral forms of tetracycline should be given at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals.
In patients with renal impairment: (see WARNINGS.) Tetracyclines should be used cautiously in patients with impaired renal function. Total dosage should be decreased by reduction of recommended individual doses and/or by extending time intervals between doses.
In patients with liver impairment: Tetracyclines should be used cautiously in patients with impaired liver function. Total dosage should be decreased by reduction of recommended individual doses and/or by extending time intervals between doses. Administration of adequate amounts of fluid with the oral formulations of tetracyclines is recommended to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration. (see ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
Adults: Usual daily dose – Four divided doses of 150 mg each or two divided doses of 300 mg each.
For pediatric patients above eight years of age: Usual daily dose, 7 to 13 mg per kg body weight per day, depending upon the severity of the disease, divided into two to four doses not to exceed adult dosage of 600 mg per day.
Gonorrhea patients sensitive to penicillin may be treated with demeclocycline administered as an initial oral dose of 600 mg followed by 300 mg every 12 hours for four days to a total of 3 grams.
Demeclocycline HCl tablets, USP,
150 mg, are supplied as round, convex, red, film-coated tablets, debossed with “AN” above “54” on one side and plain on the other side.
They are available as follows:
Unit dose packages of 100 (10 x 10) NDC 62584-159-01
Demeclocycline HCl tablets, USP,
300 mg, are supplied as round, convex, red, film-coated tablets, debossed with “AN” above “55” on one side and plain on the other side.
They are available as follows:
Unit dose packages of 50 (5 x 10) NDC 62584-163-65
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Protect from light.
KEEP THIS AND ALL DRUGS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.
FOR YOUR PROTECTION: Do not use if blister is torn or broken.
Hyperpigmentation of the thyroid has been produced by members of the tetracycline class in the following species: in rats by oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline PO 4 and methacycline; in minipigs by doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline PO 4 and methacycline; in dogs by doxycycline and minocycline; in monkeys by minocycline.
Minocycline, tetracycline PO 4 , methacycline, doxycycline, tetracycline base, oxytetracycline HCl, and tetracycline HCl, were goitrogenic in rats fed a low iodine diet. This goitrogenic effect was accompanied by high radioactive iodine uptake. Administration of minocycline also produced a large goiter with high radioiodine uptake in rats fed a relatively high iodine diet.
Treatment of various animal species with this class of drugs has also resulted in the induction of thyroid hyperplasia in the following: in rats and dogs (minocycline), in chickens (chlortetracycline) and in rats and mice (oxytetracycline). Adrenal gland hyperplasia has been observed in goats and rats treated with oxytetracycline.
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