The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend that HIV-infected mothers not breastfeed their infants, to avoid risking postnatal transmission of HIV-1.
Based on limited data, FTC has been shown to be present in human breast milk; it is not known if TAF is present in human breast milk. Tenofovir has been shown to be present in the milk of lactating rats and rhesus monkeys after administration of TDF (see Data). It is not known if TAF is present in animal milk.
It is not known if DESCOVY affects milk production or has effects on the breastfed child.
Because of the potential for: 1) HIV transmission (in HIV-negative infants); 2) developing viral resistance (in HIV-positive infants); and 3) adverse reactions in a breastfed infant similar to those seen in adults, instruct mothers not to breastfeed if they are taking DESCOVY for the treatment of HIV-1 (see Data).
Tenofovir Alafenamide: Studies in rats and monkeys have demonstrated that tenofovir is secreted in milk. Tenofovir was excreted into the milk of lactating rats following oral administration of TDF (up to 600 mg/kg/day) at up to approximately 24% of the median plasma concentration in the highest dosed animals at lactation day 11. Tenofovir was excreted into the milk of lactating monkeys following a single subcutaneous (30 mg/kg) dose of tenofovir at concentrations up to approximately 4% of plasma concentration, resulting in exposure (AUC) of approximately 20% of plasma exposure.
Treatment of HIV-1 Infection
The safety and effectiveness of DESCOVY, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, for the treatment of HIV-1 infection was established in pediatric patients with body weight greater than or equal to 14 kg [see Indication and Usage (1.1) and Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.4)].
Use of DESCOVY in pediatric patients between 6 to less than 18 years of age and weighing at least 25 kg is supported by adequate and well controlled studies of FTC+TAF with EVG+COBI in adults and by an open-label trial in antiretroviral treatment-naïve HIV-1 infected pediatric subjects aged 12 to less than 18 years and weighing at least 35 kg through Week 48 (N=50; cohort 1) and in virologically-suppressed pediatric subjects aged 6 to less than 12 years and weighing at least 25 kg through Week 48 (N=52; cohort 2). The safety and efficacy of FTC+TAF with EVG+COBI in adolescent subjects was similar to that in adults on this regimen. The safety and efficacy of FTC+TAF with EVG+COBI in subjects 6 to 12 years of age weighing at least 25 kg was similar to that in antiretroviral treatment-naïve adults and adolescents on this regimen, with the exception of a decrease from baseline in CD4+ cell count [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Use of DESCOVY in pediatric patients between 2 to less than 6 years of age and weighing at least 14 to less than 25 kg is supported by adequate and well controlled studies of FTC+TAF with EVG+COBI in adults and by a separate open-label trial of FTC+TAF with bictegravir in virologically-suppressed pediatric patients at least 2 years of age and weighing at least 14 to less than 25 kg through Week 24 (N=22; cohort 3). The safety and efficacy of FTC+TAF in these pediatric subjects were similar to that observed in adults who received FTC+TAF with bictegravir [see Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) and Clinical Studies (14.2)].
Safety and effectiveness of DESCOVY coadministered with an HIV-1 protease inhibitor that is administered with either ritonavir or cobicistat have not been established in pediatric patients weighing less than 35 kg [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
Safety and effectiveness of DESCOVY for treatment of HIV-1 infection in pediatric patients weighing less than 14 kg have not been established.
Safety and effectiveness of DESCOVY for HIV-1 PrEP in at-risk adolescents weighing at least 35 kg, excluding individuals at risk from receptive vaginal sex, is supported by data from an adequate and well-controlled trial of DESCOVY for HIV-1 PrEP in adults with additional data from safety and pharmacokinetic studies in previously conducted trials with the individual drug products, FTC and TAF, with EVG+COBI, in HIV-1 infected adults and pediatric subjects [see Dosage and Administration (2.5), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3 and 12.4), and Clinical Studies (14)].
While using DESCOVY for HIV-1 PrEP, HIV-1 testing should be repeated at least every 3 months, and upon diagnosis of any other STIs. Previous studies in at-risk adolescents indicated waning adherence to a daily oral PrEP regimen once visits were switched from monthly to quarterly visits. Adolescents may therefore benefit from more frequent visits and counseling [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Safety and effectiveness of DESCOVY for HIV-1 PrEP in pediatric patients weighing less than 35 kg have not been established.
In clinical trials of an FTC+TAF-containing regimen for treatment of HIV-1, 80 of the 97 subjects enrolled aged 65 years and over received FTC+TAF and EVG+COBI. No differences in safety or efficacy have been observed between elderly subjects and adults between 18 and less than 65 years of age.
No dosage adjustment of DESCOVY is recommended in individuals with estimated creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 30 mL per minute, or in adults with ESRD (estimated creatinine clearance below 15 mL per minute) who are receiving chronic hemodialysis. On days of hemodialysis, administer the daily dose of DESCOVY after completion of hemodialysis treatment.
Safety and effectiveness of DESCOVY coadministered with an HIV-1 protease inhibitor that is administered with either ritonavir or cobicistat have not been established in patients with ESRD [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
DESCOVY is not recommended in individuals with severe renal impairment (estimated creatinine clearance of 15 to below 30 mL per minute), or in individuals with ESRD who are not receiving chronic hemodialysis, as the safety of DESCOVY has not been established in these populations [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Clinical Studies (14.2)].
No dosage adjustment of DESCOVY is recommended in individuals with mild (Child-Pugh Class A) or moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) hepatic impairment. DESCOVY has not been studied in individuals with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
No data are available on overdose of DESCOVY in patients. If overdose occurs, monitor the individual for evidence of toxicity. Treatment of overdose with DESCOVY consists of general supportive measures including monitoring of vital signs as well as observation of the clinical status of the individual.
Emtricitabine (FTC): Limited clinical experience is available at doses higher than the recommended dose of FTC in DESCOVY. In one clinical pharmacology study, single doses of FTC 1200 mg (6 times the FTC dose in DESCOVY) were administered to 11 subjects. No severe adverse reactions were reported. The effects of higher doses are not known.
Hemodialysis treatment removes approximately 30% of the FTC dose over a 3-hour dialysis period starting within 1.5 hours of FTC dosing (blood flow rate of 400 mL per minute and a dialysate flow rate of 600 mL per minute). It is not known whether FTC can be removed by peritoneal dialysis.
Tenofovir Alafenamide (TAF): Limited clinical experience is available at doses higher than the recommended dose of TAF. A single dose of 125 mg TAF (5 times the TAF dose in 200/25 mg DESCOVY) was administered to 48 healthy subjects; no serious adverse reactions were reported. The effects of higher doses are unknown. Tenofovir is efficiently removed by hemodialysis with an extraction coefficient of approximately 54%.
DESCOVY (emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide) is a fixed dose combination tablet containing emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) for oral administration.
- FTC, a synthetic nucleoside analog of cytidine, is an HIV nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (HIV NRTI).
- TAF, an HIV NRTI, is converted in vivo to tenofovir, an acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (nucleotide) analog of adenosine 5′-monophosphate.
DESCOVY tablets are available in two dose strengths:
- 200 mg/25 mg tablets: 200 mg of FTC and 25 mg of TAF (equivalent to 28 mg of tenofovir alafenamide fumarate).
- 120 mg/15 mg tablets: 120 mg of FTC and 15 mg of TAF (equivalent to 16.8 mg of tenofovir alafenamide fumarate).
Both dose strengths of DESCOVY tablets include the following inactive ingredients: croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate, and microcrystalline cellulose. The 200 mg/ 25 mg tablets are film-coated with a coating material containing indigo carmine aluminum lake, polyethylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, talc, and titanium dioxide. The 120 mg/15 mg tablets are film-coated with a coating material containing polyvinyl alcohol, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, and talc.
Emtricitabine: The chemical name of FTC is 4-amino-5-fluoro-1-(2R -hydroxymethyl-1,3-oxathiolan-5S -yl)-(1H)-pyrimidin-2-one. FTC is the (-)enantiomer of a thio analog of cytidine, which differs from other cytidine analogs in that it has a fluorine in the 5 position.
FTC has a molecular formula of C8 H10 FN3 O3 S and a molecular weight of 247.24 and has the following structural formula:
FTC is a white to off-white powder with a solubility of approximately 112 mg per mL in water at 25 °C.
Tenofovir Alafenamide: The chemical name of tenofovir alafenamide fumarate drug substance is L-alanine, N -[(S)-[[(1R)-2-(6-amino-9H -purin-9-yl)-1-methylethoxy]methyl]phenoxyphosphinyl]-, 1-methylethyl ester, (2E)-2-butenedioate (2:1).
Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate has an empirical formula of C21 H29 O5 N6 P∙½(C4 H4 O4 ) and a formula weight of 534.50 and has the following structural formula:
Tenofovir alafenamide fumarate is a white to off-white or tan powder with a solubility of 4.7 mg per mL in water at 20 °C.
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