Desmopressin Acetate

DESMOPRESSIN ACETATE — desmopressin acetate solution
Sun Pharma Global FZE

DESCRIPTION

Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) is a synthetic analogue of the natural pituitary hormone 8-arginine vasopressin (ADH), an antidiuretic hormone affecting renal water conservation. It is chemically defined as follows:

Mol. Wt. 1183.34

Molecular formula: C46 H64 N14 O12 S2 •C2 H4 O2 •3H2 O

desmopressin-structure
(click image for full-size original)

1-(3-mercaptopropionic acid)-8-D-arginine vasopressin monoacetate (salt) trihydrate.
Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) is provided as an aqueous solution for intranasal use.
Each mL contains:
Desmopressin acetate, USP 0.1 mg
Sodium Chloride 7.5 mg
Citric acid monohydrate 1.7 mg
Disodium phosphate dihydrate 3 mg
Benzalkonium chloride solution (50%) 0.2 mg
The Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) compression pump delivers 0.1 mL (10 mcg) of desmopressin acetate nasal solution per spray.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Desmopressin acetate is a synthetic analogue of the natural hormone arginine vasopressin. One mL (0.1 mg) of intranasal desmopressin acetate has an antidiuretic activity of about 400 IU; 10 mcg of desmopressin acetate is equivalent to 40 IU.

  1. The biphasic half-lives for intranasal desmopressin acetate were 7.8 and 75.5 minutes for the fast and slow phases, compared with 2.5 and 14.5 minutes for lysine vasopressin, another form of the hormone used in this condition. As a result, intranasal desmopressin acetate provides a prompt onset of antidiuretic action with a long duration after each administration.
  2. The change in structure of arginine vasopressin to desmopressin acetate has resulted in a decreased vasopressor action and decreased actions on visceral smooth muscle relative to the enhanced antidiuretic activity, so that clinically effective antidiuretic doses are usually below threshold levels for effects on vascular or visceral smooth muscle.
  3. Desmopressin acetate administered intranasally has an antidiuretic effect about one-tenth that of an equivalent dose administered by injection.

Human Pharmacokinetics: Desmopressin acetate is mainly excreted in the urine. A pharmacokinetic study conducted in healthy volunteers and patients with mild, moderate, and severe renal impairment (n=24, 6 subjects in each group) receiving single dose desmopressin acetate (2 mcg) injection demonstrated a difference in desmopressin acetate terminal half-life. Terminal half-life significantly increased from 3 hours in normal healthy patients to 9 hours in patients with severe renal impairment. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Central Cranial Diabetes Insipidus: Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) is indicated as antidiuretic replacement therapy in the management of central cranial diabetes insipidus and for management of the temporary polyuria and polydipsia following head trauma or surgery in the pituitary region. It is ineffective for the treatment of nephrogenic diabetes insipidus.

The use of Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) in patients with an established diagnosis will result in a reduction in urinary output with increase in urine osmolality and a decrease in plasma osmolality. This will allow the resumption of a more normal life-style with a decrease in urinary frequency and nocturia.

There are reports of an occasional change in response with time, usually greater than 6 months. Some patients may show a decreased responsiveness, others a shortened duration of effect. There is no evidence this effect is due to the development of binding antibodies but may be due to a local inactivation of the peptide.

Patients are selected for therapy by establishing the diagnosis by means of the water deprivation test, the hypertonic saline infusion test, and/or the response to antidiuretic hormone. Continued response to intranasal desmopressin acetate can be monitored by urine volume and osmolality.

Desmopressin acetate is also available as a solution for injection when the intranasal route may be compromised. These situations include nasal congestion and blockage, nasal discharge, atrophy of nasal mucosa, and severe atrophic rhinitis. Intranasal delivery may also be inappropriate where there is an impaired level of consciousness. In addition, cranial surgical procedures, such as transsphenoidal hypophysectomy create situations where an alternative route of administration is needed as in cases of nasal packing or recovery from surgery.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) is contraindicated in individuals with known hypersensitivity to desmopressin acetate or to any of the components of Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray).

Desmopressin acetate is contraindicated in patients with moderate to severe renal impairment (defined as a creatinine clearance below 50 mL/min).

Desmopressin acetate is contraindicated in patients with hyponatremia or a history of hyponatremia.

WARNINGS

  1. For intranasal use only.
  2. Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) should only be used in patients where orally administered formulations are not feasible.
  3. Very rare cases of hyponatremia have been reported from world-wide postmarketing experience in patients treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate is a potent antidiuretic which, when administered, may lead to water intoxication and/or hyponatremia. Unless properly diagnosed and treated hyponatremia can be fatal. Therefore, fluid restriction is recommended and should be discussed with the patient and/or guardian. Careful medical supervision is required.
  4. When Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) is administered, in particular in pediatric and geriatric patients, fluid intake should be adjusted downward in order to decrease the potential occurrence of water intoxication and hyponatremia (See PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use and Geriatric Use.) All patients receiving Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) therapy should be observed for the following signs or symptoms associated with hyponatremia: headache, nausea/vomiting, decreased serum sodium, weight gain, restlessness, fatigue, lethargy, disorientation, depressed reflexes, loss of appetite, irritability, muscle weakness, muscle spasms or cramps and abnormal mental status such as hallucinations, decreased consciousness and confusion. Severe symptoms may include one or a combination of the following: seizure, coma and/or respiratory arrest. Particular attention should be paid to the possibility of the rare occurrence of an extreme decrease in plasma osmolality that may result in seizures which could lead to coma.
  5. Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) should be used with caution in patients with habitual or psychogenic polydipsia who may be more likely to drink excessive amounts of water, putting them at greater risk of hyponatremia.

PRECAUTIONS

General:

Intranasal desmopressin acetate at high dosage has infrequently produced a slight elevation of blood pressure, which disappeared with a reduction in dosage. The drug should be used with caution in patients with coronary artery insufficiency and/or hypertensive cardiovascular disease because of possible rise in blood pressure.

Desmopressin acetate should be used with caution in patients with conditions associated with fluid and electrolyte imbalance, such as cystic fibrosis, heart failure and renal disorders because these patients are prone to hyponatremia.

Rare severe allergic reactions have been reported with desmopressin acetate. Anaphylaxis has been reported rarely with intravenous and intranasal administration of desmopressin acetate.

Central Cranial Diabetes Insipidus: Since desmopressin acetate is used intranasally, changes in the nasal mucosa such as scarring, edema, or other disease may cause erratic, unreliable absorption in which case intranasal desmopressin acetate should not be used. For such situations, desmopressin acetate injection should be considered.

Information for Patients:

Ensure that in children administration is under adult supervision in order to control the dose intake. Patients should be informed that the Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Solution 0.01% (Nasal Spray) bottle accurately delivers 50 doses of 10 mcg each. Any solution remaining after 50 doses should be discarded since the amount delivered thereafter may be substantially less than 10 mcg of drug. No attempt should be made to transfer remaining solution to another bottle. Patients should be instructed to read accompanying directions on use of the spray pump carefully before use.

Fluid intake should be adjusted downward based upon discussion with the physician.

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