Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate

DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE- dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection
Cardinal Health

DESCRIPTION

Dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection, USP is a water-soluble inorganic ester of dexamethasone which produces a rapid response even when injected intramuscularly.

Dexamethasone sodium phosphate, a synthetic adrenocortical steroid, is a white or slightly yellow crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water and is exceedingly hygroscopic. The molecular weight is 516.41. It is designated chemically as 9-fluoro-11β,17-dihydroxy-16α-methyl-21-(phosphonooxy)pregna-1,4-diene-3, 20-dione disodium salt.

The molecular formula is: C22 H28 FNa2 O8 P and the structural formula is:

Structural formula
(click image for full-size original)

Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection is a sterile solution of dexamethasone sodium phosphate for intravenous and intramuscular use. The 4 mg/mL strength may also be used for intra-articular, intralesional and soft tissue administration.

Each mL of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection 4 mg/mL contains dexamethasone sodium phosphate, equivalent to 4 mg dexamethasone phosphate or 3.33 mg dexamethasone. Inactive ingredients per mL: 1 mg sodium sulfite anhydrous, 19.4 mg sodium citrate anhydrous and 10.42 mg (0.01 mL) benzyl alcohol (preservative) in Water for Injection.

Each mL of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection 10 mg/mL contains dexamethasone sodium phosphate, equivalent to 10 mg dexamethasone phosphate or 8.33 mg dexamethasone. Inactive ingredients per mL: 1.5 mg sodium sulfite anhydrous, 16.5 mg sodium citrate anhydrous and 10.42 mg (0.01 mL) benzyl alcohol (preservative) in Water for Injection.

The pH of both concentrations is 7.0-8.5; sodium hydroxide and/or citric acid used, if needed, for pH adjustment. Sealed under nitrogen.

ACTIONS

Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs are primarily used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.

Glucocorticoids cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the body’s immune responses to diverse stimuli.

INDICATIONS

A. Intravenous or intramuscular administration. When oral therapy is not feasible and the strength, dosage form, and route of administration of the drug reasonably lend the preparation to the treatment of the condition, those products labeled for intravenous or intramuscular use are indicated as follows:

1. Endocrine disorders

Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the drug of choice; synthetic analogs may be used in conjunction with mineralocorticoids where applicable; in infancy, mineralocorticoid supplementation is of particular importance)

Acute adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the drug of choice; mineralocorticoid supplementation may be necessary, particularly when synthetic analogs are used)

Preoperatively, and in the event of serious trauma or illness, in patients with known adrenal insufficiency or when adrenocortical reserve is doubtful

Shock unresponsive to conventional therapy if adrenocortical insufficiency exists or is suspected

Congenital adrenal hyperplasia

Nonsuppurative thyroiditis

Hypercalcemia associated with cancer

2. Rheumatic disorders

As adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in:

Post-traumatic osteoarthritis

Synovitis of osteoarthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (selected cases may require low-dose maintenance therapy)

Acute and subacute bursitis

Epicondylitis

Acute nonspecific tenosynovitis

Acute gouty arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis

Ankylosing spondylitis

3. Collagen diseases

During an exacerbation or as maintenance therapy in selected cases of:

Systemic lupus erythematosus

Acute rheumatic carditis

4. Dermatologic diseases

Pemphigus

Severe erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson Syndrome)

Exfoliative dermatitis

Bullous dermatitis herpetiformis

Severe seborrheic dermatitis

Severe psoriasis

Mycosis fungoides

5. Allergic states

Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment in:

Bronchial asthma

Contact dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis

Serum sickness

Seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis

Drug hypersensitivity reactions

Urticarial transfusion reactions

Acute noninfectious laryngeal edema (epinephrine is the drug of first choice)

6. Ophthalmic diseases

Severe acute and chronic allergic and inflammatory processes involving the eye, such as:

Herpes zoster ophthalmicus

Iritis, iridocyclitis

Chorioretinitis

Diffuse posterior uveitis and choroiditis

Optic neuritis

Sympathetic ophthalmia

Anterior segment inflammation

Allergic conjunctivitis

Allergic corneal marginal ulcers

Keratitis

7. Gastrointestinal diseases

To tide the patient over a critical period of the disease in:

Ulcerative colitis (systemic therapy)

Regional enteritis (systemic therapy)

8. Respiratory diseases

Symptomatic Sarcoidosis

Berylliosis

Fulminating or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis when used concurrently with appropriate anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy

Loeffler’s syndrome not manageable by other means

Aspiration pneumonitis

9. Hematologic disorders

Acquired (autoimmune) hemolytic anemia

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults (I.V. only; I.M. administration is contraindicated)

Secondary thrombocytopenia in adults

Erythroblastopenia (RBC anemia)

Congenital (erythroid) hypoplastic anemia

10. Neoplastic diseases

For palliative management of:

Leukemias and lymphomas in adults

Acute leukemia of childhood

11. Edematous states

To induce diuresis or remission of proteinuria in the nephrotic syndrome, without uremia, of the idiopathic type or that due to lupus erythematosus

12. Nervous system

Acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis

13. Miscellaneous

Tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when used concurrently with appropriate anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy

Trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement

Diagnostic testing of adrenocortical hyperfunction

Cerebral edema of diverse etiologies in conjunction with adequate neurological evaluation and management.

B. Intra-articular or soft tissue administration. When the strength and dosage form of the drug lend the preparation to the treatment of the condition, those products labeled for intra-articular or soft tissue administration are indicated as adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in:

Synovitis of osteoarthritis

Rheumatoid arthritis

Acute and subacute bursitis

Acute gouty arthritis

Epicondylitis

Acute nonspecific tenosynovitis

Post-traumatic osteoarthritis

C. Intralesional administration. When the strength and dosage form of the drug lend the preparation to the treatment of the condition, those products labeled for intralesional administration are indicated for:

Keloids

Localized hypertrophic, infiltrated, inflammatory lesions of: lichen planus, psoriatic plaques, granuloma annulare, and lichen simplex chronicus (neurodermatitis)

Discoid lupus erythematosus

Necrobiosis lipoidica diabeticorum

Alopecia areata

They also may be useful in cystic tumors of an aponeurosis tendon (ganglia).

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Systemic fungal infections.

WARNINGS

Serious Neurologic Adverse Reactions with Epidural Administration

Serious neurologic events, some resulting in death, have been reported with epidural injection of corticosteroids. Specific events reported include, but are not limited to, spinal cord infarction, paraplegia, quadriplegia, cortical blindness, and stroke. These serious neurologic events have been reported with and without use of fluoroscopy. The safety and effectiveness of epidural administration of corticosteroids have not been established, and corticosteroids are not approved for this use.

In patients on corticosteroid therapy subject to any unusual stress, increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids before, during and after the stressful situation is indicated. Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used.

Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.

Children who are on immunosuppressant drugs are more susceptible to infections than healthy children. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in children on immunosuppressant corticosteroids. In such children, or in adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. If exposed, therapy with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) or pooled intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), as appropriate, may be indicated. If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.

Similarly, corticosteroids should be used with great care in patients with known or suspected Strongyloides (threadworm) infestation. In such patients, corticosteroid‑-induced immunosuppression may lead to Strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination with widespread larval migration, often accompanied by severe enterocolitis and potentially fatal gram-negative septicemia.

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