DEXAMETHASONE SODIUM PHOSPHATE- dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection, solution
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Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate, C 22 H 28 FNa 2 O 8 P, has a molecular weight of 516.41 and chemically is Pregn-4-ene-3, 20-dione, 9-fluoro-11, 17-dihydroxy-16-methyl-21 (phosphonooxy)-, disodium salt, (11β, 16α).
It occurs as a white to practically white powder, is exceedingly hygroscopic, is soluble in water and its solutions have a pH between 7.5 and 9.5. It has the following structural formula:
Each mL of Dexamethasone Sodium Phosphate Injection, USP (Preserved) 10 mg/mL contains dexamethasone sodium phosphate, USP equivalent to 10 mg dexamethasone phosphate; 13.5 mg sodium citrate, dihydrate; 10 mg benzyl alcohol; and Water for Injection, q.s. pH adjusted with citric acid or sodium hydroxide, if necessary. pH: 7.0 to 8.5.
Naturally occurring glucocorticoids (hydrocortisone), which also have salt-retaining properties, are used as replacement therapy in adrenocortical deficiency states. Their synthetic analogs are primarily used for their potent anti-inflammatory effects in disorders of many organ systems.
Glucocorticoids cause profound and varied metabolic effects. In addition, they modify the body’s immune responses to diverse stimuli.
When oral therapy is not feasible and the strength, dosage form, and route of administration of the drug reasonably lend the preparation to the treatment of the condition, those products labeled for intravenous or intramuscular use are indicated as follows:
1. Endocrine disorders.
Primary or secondary adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the drug of choice; synthetic analogs may be used in conjunction with mineralocorticoids where applicable; in infancy, mineralocorticoid supplementation is of particular importance).
Acute adrenocortical insufficiency (hydrocortisone or cortisone is the drug of choice; mineralocorticoid supplementation may be necessary, particularly when synthetic analogs are used).
Preoperatively, and in the event of serious trauma or illness, in patients with known adrenal insufficiency or when adrenocortical reserve is doubtful. Shock unresponsive to conventional therapy if adrenocortical insufficiency exists or is suspected.
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia.
Hypercalcemia associated with cancer.
2. Rheumatic disorders.
As adjunctive therapy for short-term administration (to tide the patient over an acute episode or exacerbation) in:
Synovitis of osteoarthritis.
Rheumatoid arthritis, including juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (selected cases may require low-dose maintenance therapy).
Acute and subacute bursitis.
Acute nonspecific tenosynovitis.
Acute gouty arthritis.
3. Collagen diseases.
During an exacerbation or as maintenance therapy in selected cases of:
Systemic lupus erythematosus.
Acute rheumatic carditis.
4. Dermatologic diseases.
Severe erythema multiforme (Stevens-Johnson Syndrome).
Bullous dermatitis herpetiformis.
Severe seborrheic dermatitis.
5. Allergic states.
Control of severe or incapacitating allergic conditions intractable to adequate trials of conventional treatment in:
Seasonal or perennial allergic rhinitis.
Drug hypersensitivity reactions.
Urticarial transfusion reactions.
Acute noninfectious laryngeal edema (epinephrine is the drug of first choice).
6. Ophthalmic diseases.
Severe acute and chronic allergic and inflammatory processes involving the eye, such as:
Herpes zoster ophthalmicus.
Diffuse posterior uveitis and choroiditis.
Anterior segment inflammation.
Allergic corneal marginal ulcers.
7. Gastrointestinal diseases.
To tide the patient over a critical period of the disease in:
Ulcerative colitis (systemic therapy).
Regional enteritis (systemic therapy).
8. Respiratory diseases.
Fulminating or disseminated pulmonary tuberculosis when used concurrently with appropriate anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy.
Loeffler’s syndrome not manageable by other means.
9. Hematologic disorders.
Acquired (autoimmune) hemolytic anemia.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura in adults (I.V. only; I.M. administration is contraindicated).
Secondary thrombocytopenia in adults.
Erythroblastopenia (RBC anemia).
Congenital (erythroid) hypoplastic anemia.
10. Neoplastic diseases.
For palliative management of:
Leukemias and lymphomas in adults.
Acute leukemic of childhood.
11. Edematous states.
To induce diuresis or remission of proteinuria in the nephrotic syndrome, without uremia, of the idiopathic type or that due to lupus erythematosus.
12. Nervous system.
Acute exacerbations of multiple sclerosis.
Tuberculous meningitis with subarachnoid block or impending block when used concurrently with appropriate anti-tuberculosis chemotherapy.
Trichinosis with neurologic or myocardial involvement.
Diagnostic testing of adrenocortical hyperfunction.
Cerebral edema of diverse etiologies in conjunction with adequate neurological evaluation and management.
Serious neurologic events, some resulting in death, have been reported with epidural injection of corticosteroids. Specific events reported include, but are not limited to, spinal cord infarction, paraplegia, quadriplegia, cortical blindness, and stroke. These serious neurologic events have been reported with and without use of fluoroscopy. The safety and effectiveness of epidural administration of corticosteroids have not been established, and corticosteroids are not approved for this use.
In patients on corticosteroid therapy subject to any unusual stress, increased dosage of rapidly acting corticosteroids before, during and after the stressful situation is indicated. Corticosteroids may mask some signs of infection, and new infections may appear during their use. There may be decreased resistance and inability to localize infection when corticosteroids are used.
Prolonged use of corticosteroids may produce posterior subcapsular cataracts, glaucoma with possible damage to the optic nerves, and may enhance the establishment of secondary ocular infections due to fungi or viruses.
Children who are on immunosuppressant drugs are more susceptible to infections than healthy children. Chickenpox and measles, for example, can have a more serious or even fatal course in children on immunosuppressant corticosteroids. In such children, or in adults who have not had these diseases, particular care should be taken to avoid exposure. If exposed, therapy with varicella zoster immune globulin (VZIG) or pooled intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), as appropriate, may be indicated. If chickenpox develops, treatment with antiviral agents may be considered.
Similarly, corticosteroids should be used with great care in patients with known or suspected Strongyloides (threadworm) infestation. In such patients, corticosteroid-induced immunosuppression may lead to Strongyloides hyperinfection and dissemination with widespread larval migration, often accompanied by severe enterocolitis and potentially fatal gram-negative septicemia.
Since adequate human reproduction studies have not been done with corticosteroids, use of these drugs in pregnancy, nursing mothers or women of childbearing potential requires that the possible benefits of the drug be weighed against the potential hazards to the mother and embryo or fetus. Infants born of mothers who have received substantial doses of corticosteroids during pregnancy should be carefully observed for signs of hypoadrenalism.
Average and large doses of cortisone or hydrocortisone can cause elevation of blood pressure, salt and water retention, and increased excretion of potassium. These effects are less likely to occur with the synthetic derivatives except when used in large doses. Patients with a stressed myocardium should be observed carefully and the drug administered slowly since premature ventricular contractions may occur with rapid administration. Dietary salt restriction and potassium supplementation may be necessary. All corticosteroids increase calcium excretion.
While on corticosteroid therapy patients should not be vaccinated against smallpox.
Other immunization procedures should not be undertaken in patients who are on corticosteroids, especially in high doses, because of possible hazards of neurological complications and lack of antibody response.
The use of Dexamethasone sodium phosphate injection, USP in active tuberculosis should be restricted to those cases of fulminating or disseminated tuberculosis in which the corticosteroid is used for the management of the disease in conjunction with an appropriate anti-tuberculosis regimen.
If corticosteroids are indicated in patients with latent tuberculosis or tuberculin reactivity, close observation is necessary as reactivation of the disease may occur. During prolonged corticosteroid therapy, these patients should receive chemoprophylaxis.
Because rare instances of anaphylactoid reactions have occurred in patients receiving parenteral corticosteroid therapy, appropriate precautionary measures should be taken prior to administration, especially when the patient has a history of allergy to any drug.
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