CNS stimulants have been associated with weight loss and slowing of growth rate in pediatric patients.
Careful follow-up of weight and height in patients ages 7 to 10 years who were randomized to either methylphenidate or non-medication treatment groups over 14 months, as well as in naturalistic subgroups of newly methylphenidate-treated and non-medication treated patients over 36 months (to the ages of 10 to 13 years), suggests that consistently medicated pediatric patients (i.e., treatment for 7 days per week throughout the year) have a temporary slowing in growth rate (on average, a total of about 2 cm less growth in height and 2.7 kg less growth in weight over 3 years), without evidence of growth rebound during this period of development.
Closely monitor growth (weight and height) in pediatric patients treated with CNS stimulants, including dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, and patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted.
The following are discussed in more detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Abuse and Dependence [see Boxed Warning, Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.2, 9.3)]
- Known hypersensitivity to methylphenidate or other ingredients of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets [see Contraindications (4)]
- Hypertensive crisis with Concomitant Use of Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors [see Contraindications (4), Drug Interactions (7.1)]
- Serious Cardiovascular Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Increases [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Psychiatric Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Priapism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Peripheral Vasculopathy, Including Raynaud’s phenomenon [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Long-term Suppression of Growth [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in clinical practice.
Clinical Trials Experience With dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets in Pediatric Patients With ADHD
The safety data in this section is based on data related to dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets exposure during the premarketing development program in a total of 696 participants in clinical trials (684 patients, 12 healthy adult subjects). These participants received dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets 5, 10, or 20 mg/day. The 684 ADHD patients (ages 6 to 17 years) were evaluated in 2 controlled clinical studies, 2 clinical pharmacology studies, and 2 open-label long-term safety studies.
Most Common Adverse Reactions (incidence of greater than or equal to 5% and at least twice placebo): abdominal pain, fever, anorexia, and nausea
Adverse Reactions Leading to Discontinuation: Overall, 50 of 684 (7.3%) pediatric patients treated with dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets experienced an adverse reaction that resulted in discontinuation. The most common reasons for discontinuation were twitching (described as motor or vocal tics), anorexia, insomnia, and tachycardia (approximately 1% each).
Table 1 enumerates adverse reactions for two, placebo-controlled, parallel group studies in pediatric patients with ADHD taking dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets doses of 5, 10, and 20 mg/day. The table includes only those reactions that occurred in patients treated with dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets for which the incidence was at least 5% and twice the incidence among placebo-treated patients.
Table 1: Common Adverse Reactions in Pediatric Patients (6 to 17 years of age) With ADHD
|System Organ Class||Adverse Reactions|| |
Dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride tablets
(N = 79)
|Body as a whole||Abdominal pain||15 %||6%|
Abbreviation: ADHD, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of dexmethylphenidate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Immune System Disorders: hypersensitivity reactions, such as angioedema, anaphylactic reactions
Adverse Reactions Reported With All dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets Formulations
The following adverse reactions associated with the use of all dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets formulations were identified in clinical trials, spontaneous reports, and literature. Because these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Infections and Infestations: nasopharyngitis
Blood and the Lymphatic System Disorders: leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, anemia
Immune System Disorders: hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema and anaphylaxis
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: decreased appetite, reduced weight gain, and suppression of growth during prolonged use in pediatric patients
Psychiatric Disorders: insomnia, anxiety, restlessness, agitation, psychosis (sometimes with visual and tactile hallucinations), depressed mood
Nervous System Disorders: headache, dizziness, tremor, dyskinesia, including choreoatheetoid movements, drowsiness, convulsions, cerebrovascular disorders (including vasculitis, cerebral hemorrhages, and cerebrovascular accidents), serotonin syndrome in combination with serotonergic drugs
Eye Disorders: blurred vision, difficulties in visual accommodation
Cardiac Disorders: tachycardia, palpitations, increased blood pressure, arrhythmias, angina pectoris
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: cough
Gastrointestinal Disorders: dry mouth, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, dyspepsia
Hepatobiliary Disorders: abnormal liver function, ranging from transaminase elevation to severe hepatic injury
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: hyperhidrosis, pruritus, urticaria, exfoliative dermatitis, scalp hair loss, erythema multiforme rash, thrombocytopenic purpura
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: arthralgia, muscle cramps, rhabdomyolysis
Investigations: weight loss (adult ADHD patients)
Additional Adverse Reactions Reported With Other Methylphenidate-Containing Products
The list below shows adverse reactions not listed with dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets formulations that have been reported with other methylphenidate products based on clinical trials data and post-marketing spontaneous reports.
Blood and Lymphatic Disorders: pancytopenia
Immune System Disorders: hypersensitivity reactions, such as auricular swelling
Psychiatric Disorders: affect lability, mania, disorientation, libido changes
Nervous System Disorders: migraine
Eye Disorders: diplopia, mydriasis
Cardiac Disorders: sudden cardiac death, myocardial infarction, bradycardia, extrasystole, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular extrasystole
Vascular Disorders: peripheral coldness, Raynaud’s phenomenon
Respiratory, Thoracic, and Mediastinal Disorders: pharyngolaryngeal pain, dyspnea
Gastrointestinal Disorders: diarrhea, constipation
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: angioneurotic edema, erythema, fixed drug eruption
Musculoskeletal, Connective Tissue, and Bone Disorders: myalgia, muscle twitching
Renal and Urinary Disorders: hematuria
Reproductive System and Breast Disorders: gynecomastia
General Disorders: fatigue
Urogenital Disorders: priapism
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