Dexmethylphenidate Hydrochloride (Page 3 of 7)

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Clinically Important Drug Interactions With Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets

Table 2 presents clinically important drug interactions with dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets.

Table 2: Clinically Important Drug Interactions with Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)
Clinical Impact Concomitant use of MAOIs and CNS stimulants, including dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, can cause hypertensive crisis. Potential outcomes include death, stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, ophthalmological complications, eclampsia, pulmonary edema, and renal failure [see Contraindications (4)].
Intervention Concomitant use of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets with MAOIs or within 14 days after discontinuing MAOI treatment is contraindicated.
Examples selegiline, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid, phenelzine, linezolid, methylene blue
Antihypertensive Drugs
Clinical Impact Dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets may decrease the effectiveness of drugs used to treat hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Intervention Adjust the dosage of the antihypertensive drug as needed.
Examples Potassium-sparing and thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), beta blockers, centrally acting alpha-2 receptor agonists
Halogenated Anesthetics
Clinical Impact Concomitant use of halogenated anesthetics and dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets may increase the risk of sudden blood pressure and heart rate increase during surgery.
Intervention Monitor blood pressure and avoid use of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets in patients being treated with anesthetics on the day of surgery.
Examples halothane, isoflurane, enflurane, desflurane, sevoflurane
Risperidone
Clinical Impact Combined use of methylphenidate with risperidone when there is a change, whether an increase or decrease, in dosage of either or both medications, may increase the risk of extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS)
Intervention Monitor for signs of EPS

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Exposure Registry

There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to ADHD medications, including dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for ADHD medications at 1-866-961-2388 or visit https://womensmentalhealth.org/adhd­ medications/.


Risk Summary

Dexmethylphenidate is the d-threo enantiomer of racemic methylphenidate. Published studies and postmarketing reports on methylphenidate use during pregnancy have not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. There may be risks to the fetus associated with the use of CNS stimulants use during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations). Embryo-fetal development studies in rats showed delayed fetal skeletal ossification at doses up to 5 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 20 mg/day given to adults based on plasma levels. A decrease in pup weight in males was observed in a pre- and post-natal development study with oral administration of methylphenidate to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation at doses 5 times the MRHD of 20 mg/day given to adults based on plasma levels. Plasma levels in adults were comparatively similar to plasma levels in adolescents (see Data).

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.


Clinical Considerations

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions

CNS stimulants, such as dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets, can cause vasoconstriction and thereby decrease placental perfusion. No fetal and/or neonatal adverse reactions have been reported with the use of therapeutic doses of methylphenidate during pregnancy; however, premature delivery and low birth weight infants have been reported in amphetamine-dependent mothers.


Data

Animal Data

In embryo-fetal development studies conducted in rats and rabbits, dexmethylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 20 and 100 mg/kg/day, respectively, during the period of organogenesis. No evidence of malformations was found in either the rat or rabbit study; however, delayed fetal skeletal ossification was observed at the highest dose level in rats. When dexmethylphenidate was administered to rats throughout pregnancy and lactation at doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day, post-weaning body weight gain was decreased in male offspring at the highest dose, but no other effects on postnatal development were observed. At the highest doses tested, plasma levels [area under the curves (AUCs)] of dexmethylphenidate in pregnant rats and rabbits were approximately 5 and 1 times, respectively, those in adults dosed with the MRHD of 20 mg/day.

Racemic methylphenidate has been shown to cause malformations (increased incidence of fetal spina bifida) in rabbits when given in doses of 200 mg/kg/day throughout organogenesis.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Dexmethylphenidate is the d-threo enantiomer of racemic methylphenidate. Limited published literature, based on milk sampling from seven mothers reports that methylphenidate is present in human milk, which resulted in infant doses of 0.16% to 0.7% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 1.1 and 2.7. There are no reports of adverse effects on the breastfed infant and no effects on milk production. Long-term neurodevelopmental effects on infants from stimulant exposure are unknown. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets or from the underlying maternal condition.


Clinical Considerations

Monitor breastfeeding infants for adverse reactions, such as agitation, insomnia, anorexia, and reduced weight gain.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets have been established in pediatric patients ages 6 to 17 years in two adequate and well-controlled clinical trials [see Clinical Studies (14)].

The safety and effectiveness of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets in pediatric patients less than 6 years have not been established.

The long-term efficacy of dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets in pediatric patients has not been established.


Long Term Suppression of Growth

Growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, including dexmethylphenidate hydrochloride tablets. Pediatric patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
Rats treated with racemic methylphenidate early in the postnatal period through sexual maturation demonstrated a decrease in spontaneous locomotor activity in adulthood. A deficit in acquisition of a specific learning task was observed in females only. The doses at which these findings were observed are at least 6 times the MRHD of 60 mg/day given to children on a mg/m2 basis.

In a study conducted in young rats, racemic methylphenidate was administered orally at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day for 9 weeks, starting early in the postnatal period (postnatal Day 7) and continuing through sexual maturity (postnatal week 10). When these animals were tested as adults (postnatal Weeks 13 to 14), decreased spontaneous locomotor activity was observed in males and females previously treated with 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 4 times the MRHD of 60 mg of racemic methylphenidate given to children on a mg/m2 basis) or greater, and a deficit in the acquisition of a specific learning task was seen in females exposed to the highest dose (8 times the MRHD given to children on a mg/m2 basis).
The no effect level for juvenile neurobehavioral development in rats was 5 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.5 times the MRHD given to children on a mg/m2 basis). The clinical significance of the long-term behavioral effects observed in rats is unknown.

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