The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of amphetamine, MAS-ER Capsules, or ADDERALL. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Palpitations. There have been isolated reports of cardiomyopathy associated with chronic amphetamine use.
Central Nervous System
Psychotic episodes at recommended doses, overstimulation, restlessness, irritability, euphoria, dyskinesia, dysphoria, depression, tremor, tics, aggression, anger, logorrhea, dermatillomania, paresthesia (including formication), and bruxism.
Vision blurred, mydriasis.
Unpleasant taste, constipation, intestinal ischemia, and other gastrointestinal disturbances.
Urticaria, rash, hypersensitivity reactions including angioedema and anaphylaxis. Serious skin rashes, including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis have been reported.
Impotence, changes in libido, frequent or prolonged erections.
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
|Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors (MAOIs)|
|Clinical Impact||Concomitant use of MAOIs and CNS stimulants can cause hypertensive crisis. Potential outcomes include death, stroke, myocardial infarction, aortic dissection, ophthalmological complications, eclampsia, pulmonary edema, and renal failure.|
|Intervention||Do not administer MAS-ER Capsules concomitantly or within 14 days after discontinuing MAOI [see Contraindications (4)].|
|Examples||selegiline, tranylcypromine, isocarboxazid, phenelzine, linezolid, methylene blue|
|Clinical Impact||The concomitant use of MAS-ER Capsules and serotonergic drugs increases the risk of serotonin syndrome.|
|Intervention||Initiate with lower doses and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome, particularly during MAS-ER Capsules initiation or dosage increase. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue MAS-ER Capsules and the concomitant serotonergic drug(s) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].|
|Examples||selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRI), triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, St. John’s Wort|
|Clinical Impact||The concomitant use of MAS-ER Capsules and CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase the exposure of MAS-ER Capsules compared to the use of the drug alone and increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.|
|Intervention||Initiate with lower doses and monitor patients for signs and symptoms of serotonin syndrome particularly during MAS-ER Capsules initiation and after a dosage increase. If serotonin syndrome occurs, discontinue MAS-ER Capsules and the CYP2D6 inhibitor [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Overdosage (10)].|
|Examples||paroxetine and fluoxetine (also serotonergic drugs), quinidine, ritonavir|
|Clinical Impact||Increase blood levels and potentiate the action of amphetamine.|
|Intervention||Co-administration of MAS-ER Capsules and gastrointestinal or urinary alkalinizing agents should be avoided.|
|Examples||Gastrointestinal alkalinizing agents (e.g., sodium bicarbonate). Urinary alkalinizing agents (e.g. acetazolamide, some thiazides).|
|Clinical Impact||Lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines.|
|Intervention||Increase dose based on clinical response.|
|Examples||Gastrointestinal acidifying agents (e.g., guanethidine, reserpine, glutamic acid HCl, ascorbic acid). Urinary acidifying agents (e.g., ammonium chloride, sodium acid phosphate, methenamine salts).|
|Clinical Impact||May enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents causing striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated.|
|Intervention||Monitor frequently and adjust or use alternative therapy based on clinical response.|
|Proton Pump Inhibitors|
|Clinical Impact||Time to maximum concentration (Tmax ) of amphetamine is decreased compared to when administered alone.|
|Intervention||Monitor patients for changes in clinical effect and adjust therapy based on clinical response.|
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to MAS-ER Capsules during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for Psychostimulants at 1-866-961-2388 or visiting online at https://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/othermedications/.
Available data from published epidemiologic studies and postmarketing reports on use of prescription amphetamine in pregnant women have not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage (see Data). Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including premature delivery and low birth weight, have been seen in infants born to mothers taking amphetamines during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).
No apparent effects on morphological development were observed in embryo-fetal development studies, with oral administration of amphetamine to rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses 2 and 12 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 20 mg/day given to adolescents, on a mg/m2 basis. However, in a pre- and post-natal development study, amphetamine (d- to l- ratio of 3:1) administered orally to pregnant rats during gestation and lactation caused a decrease in pup survival and a decrease in pup body weight that correlated with a delay in developmental landmarks at clinically relevant doses of amphetamine. In addition, adverse effects on reproductive performance were observed in pups whose mothers were treated with amphetamine. Long-term neurochemical and behavioral effects have also been reported in animal developmental studies using clinically relevant doses of amphetamine (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Amphetamines, such as MAS-ER Capsules, cause vasoconstriction and thereby may decrease placental perfusion. In addition, amphetamines can stimulate uterine contractions, increasing the risk of premature delivery. Infants born to mothers taking amphetamines during pregnancy have an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight.
Monitor infants born to mothers taking amphetamines for symptoms of withdrawal such as feeding difficulties, irritability, agitation, and excessive drowsiness.
Amphetamine (d- to l- enantiomer ratio of 3:1) had no apparent effects on embryofetal morphological development or survival when administered orally to pregnant rats and rabbits throughout the period of organogenesis at doses of up to 6 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 2 and 12 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 20 mg/day given to adolescents, on a mg/m2 basis. Fetal malformations and death have been reported in mice following parenteral administration of d- amphetamine doses of 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 10 times the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis) or greater to pregnant animals. Administration of these doses was also associated with severe maternal toxicity.
A study was conducted in which pregnant rats received daily oral doses of amphetamine (d- to l- enantiomer ratio of 3:1) of 2, 6, and 10 mg/kg from gestation day 6 to lactation day 20. These doses are approximately 0.8, 2, and 4 times the MRHD of 20 mg/day given to adolescents, on a mg/m2 basis. All doses caused hyperactivity and decreased weight gain in the dams. A decrease in pup survival was seen at all doses. A decrease in pup body weight was seen at 6 and 10 mg/kg which correlated with delays in developmental landmarks, such as preputial separation and vaginal opening. Increased pup locomotor activity was seen at 10 mg/kg on day 22 postpartum but not at 5 weeks postweaning. When pups were tested for reproductive performance at maturation, gestational weight gain, number of implantations, and number of delivered pups were decreased in the group whose mothers had been given 10 mg/kg.
A number of studies from the literature in rodents indicate that prenatal or early postnatal exposure to amphetamine (d- or d, l-) at doses similar to those used clinically can result in long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations. Reported behavioral effects include learning and memory deficits, altered locomotor activity, and changes in sexual function.
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