Based on limited case reports in published literature, amphetamine (d- or d , l-) is present in human milk, at relative infant doses of 2% to 13.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 1.9 and 7.5. There are no reports of adverse effects on the breastfed infant. Long-term neurodevelopmental effects on infants from amphetamine exposure are unknown. It is possible that large dosages of amphetamine might interfere with milk production, especially in women whose lactation is not well established. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with MAS-ER Capsules.
MAS-ER Capsules are indicated for use in children 6 years of age and older.
The safety and efficacy of MAS-ER Capsules in children under 6 years of age have not been studied. Long-term effects of amphetamines in children have not been well established.
Long-Term Growth Suppression
Growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, including MAS-ER Capsules, and pediatric patients aged 6 to 17 years who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
Juvenile rats treated with mixed amphetamine salts early in the postnatal period through sexual maturation demonstrated transient changes in motor activity. Learning and memory was impaired at approximately 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) given to children on a mg/m2 basis. No recovery was seen following a drug free period. A delay in sexual maturation was observed at a dose approximately 6 times the MRHD given to children on a mg/m2 basis, although there was no effect on fertility.
In a juvenile developmental study, rats received daily oral doses of amphetamine (d to l enantiomer ratio of 3:1) of 2, 6, or 20 mg/kg on days 7-13 of age; from day 14 to approximately day 60 of age these doses were given b.i.d. for total daily doses of 4, 12, or 40 mg/kg. The latter doses are approximately 0.6, 2, and 6 times the MRHD of 30 mg/day, given to children on a mg/m2 basis. Post dosing hyperactivity was seen at all doses; motor activity measured prior to the daily dose was decreased during the dosing period but the decreased motor activity was largely absent after an 18 day drug-free recovery period. Performance in the Morris water maze test for learning and memory was impaired at the 40 mg/kg dose, and sporadically at the lower doses, when measured prior to the daily dose during the treatment period; no recovery was seen after a 19 day drug-free period. A delay in the developmental milestones of vaginal opening and preputial separation was seen at 40 mg/kg but there was no effect on fertility.
MAS-ER Capsules have not been studied in the geriatric population.
Due to reduced clearance of amphetamines in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR 15 to <30 mL/min/1.73m2), the recommended dose should be reduced. MAS-ER Capsules are not recommended in patients with ESRD (GFR < 15 ml/min/1.73m2) [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
d-Amphetamine is not dialyzable.
MAS-ER Capsules contain amphetamine, a Schedule II controlled substance.
MAS-ER Capsules are CNS stimulants that contain amphetamine, which has a high potential for abuse. Abuse is characterized by impaired control of drug use, compulsive use despite harm, and craving.
Signs and symptoms of amphetamine abuse may include increased heart rate, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and/or sweating, dilated pupils, hyperactivity, restlessness, insomnia, decreased appetite, loss of coordination, tremors, flushed skin, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain. Anxiety, psychosis, hostility, aggression, suicidal or homicidal ideation have also been observed. Abusers of amphetamines may use other unapproved routes of administration which can result in overdose and death [see Overdosage (10)].
To reduce the abuse of CNS stimulants, including MAS-ER Capsules, assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing. After prescribing, keep careful prescription records, educate patients and their families about abuse and proper storage and disposal of CNS stimulants. Monitor for signs of abuse while on therapy and re-evaluate the need for MAS-ER Capsules use.
Tolerance (a state of adaptation in which exposure to a specific dose of a drug results in a reduction of the drug’s desired and/or undesired effects over time, in such a way that a higher dose of the drug is required to produce the same effect that was once obtained at a lower dose) may occur during chronic therapy of CNS stimulants including MAS-ER Capsules.
Physical Dependence (which is manifested by a withdrawal syndrome produced by abrupt cessation, rapid dose reduction, or administration of an antagonist) may occur in patients treated with CNS stimulants including MAS-ER Capsules. Withdrawal symptoms after abrupt cessation of CNS stimulants include dysphoric mood; fatigue; vivid, unpleasant dreams; insomnia or hypersomnia; increased appetite; and psychomotor retardation or agitation.
Manifestations of amphetamine overdose include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states, hyperpyrexia and rhabdomyolysis. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central nervous system stimulation. Serotonin syndrome has been reported with amphetamine use, including MAS-ER Capsules. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma.
Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center for up to date guidance and advice.
The prolonged release of mixed amphetamine salts from MAS-ER Capsules should be considered when treating patients with overdose.
d-Amphetamine is not dialyzable.
MAS-ER Capsules contain mixed salts of a single-entity amphetamine, a CNS stimulant. MAS-ER Capsules contain equal amounts (by weight) of four salts: dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate, dextroamphetamine saccharate and amphetamine (D,L)-aspartate monohydrate. This results in a 3.1:1 mixture of dextro- to levo- amphetamine base equivalent.
The 5 mg, 10 mg, 15 mg, 20 mg, 25 mg and 30 mg strength extended release capsules are for oral administration. MAS-ER Capsules contain two types of drug-containing beads (immediate-release and delayed release) which prolong the release of amphetamine compared to the ADDERALL (immediate-release) tablet formulation.
Each capsule contains:
|Capsule Strength||5 mg||10 mg||15 mg||20 mg||25 mg||30 mg|
|Dextroamphetamine Saccharate||1.25 mg||2.5 mg||3.75 mg||5.0 mg||6.25 mg||7.5 mg|
|Amphetamine (D,L)-Aspartate Monohydrate||1.25 mg||2.5 mg||3.75 mg||5.0 mg||6.25 mg||7.5 mg|
|Dextroamphetamine Sulfate||1.25 mg||2.5 mg||3.75 mg||5.0 mg||6.25 mg||7.5 mg|
|Amphetamine Sulfate||1.25 mg||2.5 mg||3.75 mg||5.0 mg||6.25 mg||7.5 mg|
|Total amphetamine base equivalence||3.1 mg||6.3 mg||9.4 mg||12.5 mg||15.6 mg||18.8 mg|
|d -amphetamine base equivalence||2.4 mg||4.7 mg||7.1 mg||9.5 mg||11.9 mg||14.2 mg|
|l -amphetamine base equivalence||0.75 mg||1.5 mg||2.3 mg||3.0 mg||3.8 mg||4.5 mg|
Inactive Ingredients and Colors
The inactive ingredients in MAS-ER Capsules include: gelatin capsules, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, methacrylic acid copolymer, opadry beige, sugar spheres, talc, and triethyl citrate. Gelatin capsules contain edible inks, kosher gelatin, and titanium dioxide. The 5 mg, 10 mg, and 15 mg capsules also contain FD&C Blue #2. The 20 mg, 25 mg, and 30 mg capsules also contain red iron oxide and yellow iron oxide.
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