No evidence of carcinogenicity was found in studies in which d,l -amphetamine (enantiomer ratio of 1:1) was administered to mice and rats in the diet for 2 years at doses of up to 30 mg/kg/day in male mice, 19 mg/kg/day in female mice, and 5 mg/kg/day in male and female rats. These doses are approximately 2.4, 1.5, and 0.8 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose of 30 mg/day given to children, on a mg/m2 basis.
Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio d- to l- ratio of 3:1, was not clastogenic in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test in vivo and was negative when tested in the E. coli component of the Ames test in vitro. d,l -Amphetamine (1:1 enantiomer ratio) has been reported to produce a positive response in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus test, an equivocal response in the Ames test, and negative responses in the in vitro sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration assays.
Impairment of Fertility
Amphetamine, in the enantiomer ratio d- to l- ratio of 3:1, did not adversely affect fertility or early embryonic development in the rat at doses of up to 20 mg/kg/day (approximately 8 times the maximum recommended human dose of 20 mg/day given to adolescents, on a mg/m2 basis).
Acute administration of high doses of amphetamine (d- or d,l-) has been shown to produce long-lasting neurotoxic effects, including irreversible nerve fiber damage, in rodents. The significance of these findings to humans is unknown.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in children aged 6-12 (N=584) who met DSM-IV® criteria for ADHD (either the combined type or the hyperactive-impulsive type). Patients were randomized to fixed-dose treatment groups receiving final doses of 10, 20, or 30 mg of MAS-ER Capsules or placebo once daily in the morning for three weeks. Significant improvements in patient behavior, based upon teacher ratings of attention and hyperactivity, were observed for all MAS-ER Capsules doses compared to patients who received placebo, for all three weeks, including the first week of treatment, when all MAS-ER Capsules subjects were receiving a dose of 10 mg/day. Patients who received MAS-ER Capsules showed behavioral improvements in both morning and afternoon assessments compared to patients on placebo.
In a classroom analogue study, patients (N=51) receiving fixed doses of 10 mg, 20 mg or 30 mg MAS-ER Capsules demonstrated statistically significant improvements in teacher-rated behavior and performance measures, compared to patients treated with placebo.
A double-blind, randomized, multi-center, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study was conducted in adolescents aged 13-17 (N=327) who met DSM-IV® criteria for ADHD. The primary cohort of patients (n=287, weighing ≤ 75kg/165lbs) was randomized to fixed-dose treatment groups and received four weeks of treatment. Patients were randomized to receive final doses of 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, and 40 mg MAS-ER Capsules or placebo once daily in the morning. Patients randomized to doses greater than 10 mg were titrated to their final doses by 10 mg each week. The secondary cohort consisted of 40 subjects weighing >75kg/165lbs who were randomized to fixed-dose treatment groups receiving final doses of 50 mg and 60 mg MAS-ER Capsules or placebo once daily in the morning for 4 weeks. The primary efficacy variable was the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) total score for the primary cohort. The ADHD-RS-IV is an 18-item scale that measures the core symptoms of ADHD. Improvements in the primary cohort were statistically significantly greater in all four primary cohort active treatment groups (MAS-ER Capsules 10 mg, 20 mg, 30 mg, and 40 mg) compared with the placebo group. There was not adequate evidence that doses greater than 20 mg/day conferred additional benefit.
A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study was conducted in adults (N=255) who met DSM-IV® criteria for ADHD. Patients were randomized to fixed-dose treatment groups receiving final doses of 20, 40, or 60 mg of MAS-ER Capsules or placebo once daily in the morning for four weeks. Significant improvements, measured with the Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Rating Scale (ADHD-RS), an 18- item scale that measures the core symptoms of ADHD, were observed at endpoint for all MAS-ER Capsules doses compared to patients who received placebo for all four weeks. There was not adequate evidence that doses greater than 20 mg/day conferred additional benefit.
MAS-ER Capsules are available as:
5 mg extended release capsules — Clear/blue (imprinted M. Amphet Salts 5 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 0781-2329-01
10 mg extended release capsules — Blue/blue (imprinted M. Amphet Salts 10 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 0781-2335-01
15 mg extended release capsules — Blue/white (imprinted M. Amphet Salts 15 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 0781-2343-01
20 mg extended release capsules — Orange/orange (imprinted M. Amphet Salts 20 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 0781-2352-01
25 mg extended release capsules — Orange/white (imprinted M. Amphet Salts 25 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 0781-2368-01
30 mg extended release capsules — Natural/orange (imprinted M. Amphet Salts 30 mg), bottles of 100, NDC 0781-2371-01
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP.
Store at room temperature, 20° C to 25° C (68° F to 77° F). Excursions permitted to 15-30° C (59-86° F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature]
Comply with local laws and regulations on drug disposal of CNS stimulants. Dispose of remaining, unused, or expired MAS-ER Capsules at authorized collection sites such as retail pharmacies, hospital or clinic pharmacies, and law enforcement locations. If no take-back program or authorized collector is available, mix MAS-ER Capsules with an undesirable, nontoxic substance to make it less appealing to children and pets. Place the mixture in a container such as a sealed plastic bag and discard MAS-ER Capsules in the household trash.
Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide).
Controlled Substance Status/Potential for Abuse, Misuse, and Dependence
Advise patients that MAS-ER Capsules is a federally controlled substance because it can be abused or lead to dependence. Additionally, emphasize that MAS-ER Capsules should be stored in a safe place to prevent misuse and/or abuse. Evaluate patient history (including family history) of abuse or dependence on alcohol, prescription medicines, or illicit drugs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9)].
Serious Cardiovascular Risks
Advise patients of serious cardiovascular risk (including sudden death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and hypertension) with MAS-ER Capsules. Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
Prior to initiating treatment with MAS-ER Capsules, adequately screen patients with comorbid depressive symptoms to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder. Such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and/or depression. Additionally, MAS-ER Capsule therapy at usual doses may cause treatment-emergent psychotic or manic symptoms in patients without prior history of psychotic symptoms or mania [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Circulation problems in fingers and toes [Peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon]
Instruct patients beginning treatment with MAS-ER Capsules about the risk of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s Phenomenon, and in associated signs and symptoms: fingers or toes may feel numb, cool, painful, and/or may change color from pale, to blue, to red. Instruct patients to report to their physician any new numbness, pain, skin color change, or sensitivity to temperature in fingers or toes. Instruct patients to call their physician immediately with any signs of unexplained wounds appearing on fingers or toes while taking MAS-ER Capsules. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
Caution patients about the risk of serotonin syndrome with concomitant use of MAS-ER Capsules and other serotonergic drugs including SSRIs, SNRIs, triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, St. John’s Wort, and with drugs that impair metabolism of serotonin (in particular MAOIs, both those intended to treat psychiatric disorders and also others such as linezolid [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.7) and Drug Interactions (7.1)]. Advise patients to contact their healthcare provider or report to the emergency room if they experience signs or symptoms of serotonin syndrome.
Advise patients to notify their physicians if they are taking, or plan to take, any prescription or over-the-counter drugs because there is a potential for interactions [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].
Monitor growth in children during treatment with MAS-ER Capsules, and patients who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Advise patients that there is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to MAS-ER Capsules during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Advise patients to notify their healthcare provider if they become pregnant or intend to become pregnant during treatment with MAS-ER Capsules. Advise patients of the potential fetal effects from the use of MAS-ER Capsules during pregnancy [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)].
Advise women not to breastfeed if they are taking MAS-ER Capsules [see Use in Specific Populations (8.2)].
Impairment in Ability to Operate Machinery or Vehicles
MAS-ER Capsules may impair the ability of the patient to engage in potentially hazardous activities such as operating machinery or vehicles; the patient should therefore be cautioned accordingly.
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