Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate extended-release during pregnancy. Healthcare providers are encouraged to register patients by calling the National Pregnancy Registry for Psychostimulants at 1-866-961-2388 or visiting online at https://womensmentalhealth.org/clinical-and-research-programs/pregnancyregistry/othermedications/.
Available data from published epidemiologic studies and postmarketing reports on use of prescription amphetamine in pregnant women have not identified a drug-associated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage (see Data). Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including premature delivery and low birth weight, have been seen in infants born to mothers taking amphetamines during pregnancy (see Clinical Considerations).
No apparent effects on morphological development were observed in embryo-fetal development studies, with oral administration of amphetamine to rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses 2 and 12 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 20 mg/day given to adolescents, on a mg/m2 basis. However, in a pre- and post-natal development study, amphetamine (d- to l- ratio of 3:1) administered orally to pregnant rats during gestation and lactation caused a decrease in pup survival and a decrease in pup body weight that correlated with a delay in developmental landmarks at clinically relevant doses of amphetamine. In addition, adverse effects on reproductive performance were observed in pups whose mothers were treated with amphetamine. Long-term neurochemical and behavioral effects have also been reported in animal developmental studies using clinically relevant doses of amphetamine (see Data).
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Amphetamines, such as Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate extended-release, cause vasoconstriction and thereby may decrease placental perfusion. In addition, amphetamines can stimulate uterine contractions, increasing the risk of premature delivery. Infants born to mothers taking amphetamines during pregnancy have an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight.
Monitor infants born to mothers taking amphetamines for symptoms of withdrawal such as feeding difficulties, irritability, agitation, and excessive drowsiness.
Amphetamine (d-to l- enantiomer ratio of 3:1) had no apparent effects on embryofetal morphological development or survival when administered orally to pregnant rats and rabbits throughout the period of organogenesis at doses of up to 6 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. These doses are approximately 2 and 12 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 20 mg/day given to adolescents, on a mg/m2 basis. Fetal malformations and death have been reported in mice following parenteral administration of d-amphetamine doses of 50 mg/kg/day (approximately 10 times the MRHD given to adolescents on a mg/m2 basis) or greater to pregnant animals. Administration of these doses was also associated with severe maternal toxicity.
A study was conducted in which pregnant rats received daily oral doses of amphetamine (d — toll — enantiomer ratio of 3:1), of 2, 6, and 10 mg/kg from gestation day 6 to lactation day 20. These doses are approximately 0.8, 2, and 4 times the MRHDof 20 mg/day given to adolescents, on a mg/m2 basis. All doses caused hyperactivity and decreased weight gain in the dams. A decrease in pup survival was seen at all doses. A decrease in pup body weight was seen at 6 and 10 mg/kg which correlated with delays in developmental landmarks, such as preputial separation and vaginal opening. Increased pup locomotor activity was seen at 10 mg/kg on day 22 postpartum but not at 5 weeks postweaning. When pups were tested for reproductive performance at maturation, gestational weight gain, number of implantations, and number of delivered pups were decreased in the group whose mothers had been given 10 mg/kg.
A number of studies from the literature in rodents indicate that prenatal or early postnatal exposure to amphetamine (d — or d , l -), at doses similar to those used clinically, can result in long-term neurochemical and behavioral alterations. Reported behavioral effects include learning and memory deficits, altered locomotor activity, and changes in sexual function.
Based on limited case reports in published literature, amphetamine (d- or d , l-) is present in human milk, at relative infant doses of 2% to 13.8% of the maternal weight-adjusted dosage and a milk/plasma ratio ranging between 1.9 and 7.5. There are no reports of adverse effects on the breastfed infant. Long-term neurodevelopmental effects on infants from amphetamine exposure are unknown. It is possible that large dosages of amphetamine might interfere with milk production, especially in women whose lactation is not well established. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants, advise patients that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate extended-release.
Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate extended-release is indicated for use in children 6 years of age and older.
The safety and efficacy of Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate extended-release in children under 6 years of age have not been studied. Long-term effects of amphetamines in children have not been well established.
Long-Term Growth Suppression
Growth should be monitored during treatment with stimulants, including Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate extended-release, and pediatric patients aged 6 to 17 years who are not growing or gaining weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Juvenile Animal Toxicity Data
Juvenile rats treated with mixed amphetamine salts early in the postnatal period through sexual maturation demonstrated transient changes in motor activity. Learning and memory was impaired at approximately 6 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) given to children on a mg/m2 basis. No recovery was seen following a drug free period. A delay in sexual maturation was observed at a dose approximately 6 times the MRHD given to children on a mg/m2 basis, although there was no effect on fertility.
In a juvenile developmental study, rats received daily oral doses of amphetamine (d to l enantiomer ratio of 3:1) of 2, 6, or 20 mg/kg on days 7 to 13 of age; from day 14 to approximately day 60 of age these doses were given b.i.d. for total daily doses of 4, 12, or 40 mg/kg. The latter doses are approximately 0.6, 2, and 6 times the MRHD of 30 mg/day given to children on a mg/m2 basis. Post dosing hyperactivity was seen at all doses; motor activity measured prior to the daily dose was decreased during the dosing period but the decreased motor activity was largely absent after an 18 day drug-free recovery period. Performance in the Morris water maze test for learning and memory was impaired at the 40 mg/kg dose, and sporadically at the lower doses, when measured prior to the daily dose during the treatment period; no recovery was seen after a 19 day drug-free period. A delay in the developmental milestones of vaginal opening and preputial separation was seen at 40 mg/kg but there was no effect on fertility.
Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate extended-release has not been studied in the geriatric population.
Due to reduced clearance of amphetamines in patients with severe renal impairment (GFR 15 to <30 mL/min/1.73m2), the recommended dose should be reduced. Dextroamphetamine saccharate, amphetamine aspartate monohydrate, dextroamphetamine sulfate, amphetamine sulfate extended-release is not recommended in patients with ESRD (GFR < 15 ml/min/1.73m2) [see DOSAGE and ADMINISTRATION (2.5), CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY (12.3)].
d-Amphetamine is not dialyzable.
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