Dextroamphetamine Sulfate

DEXTROAMPHETAMINE SULFATE- dextroamphetamine sulfate tablet
Teva Pharmaceuticals USA, Inc.

WARNING

AMPHETAMINES HAVE A HIGH POTENTIAL FOR ABUSE. ADMINISTRATION OF AMPHETAMINES FOR PROLONGED PERIODS OF TIME MAY LEAD TO DRUG DEPENDENCE AND MUST BE AVOIDED. PARTICULAR ATTENTION SHOULD BE PAID TO THE POSSIBILITY OF SUBJECTS OBTAINING AMPHETAMINES FOR NON-THERAPEUTIC USE OR DISTRIBUTION TO OTHERS, AND THE DRUGS SHOULD BE PRESCRIBED OR DISPENSED SPARINGLY.

MISUSE OF AMPHETAMINES MAY CAUSE SUDDEN DEATH AND SERIOUS CARDIOVASCULAR ADVERSE EVENTS.

DESCRIPTION

Dextroamphetamine sulfate, USP is the dextro isomer of the compound d,l -amphetamine sulfate, a sympathomimetic amine of the amphetamine group. Chemically, dextroamphetamine is d -alpha-methylphenethylamine, and is present in all forms of dextroamphetamine sulfate, USP as the neutral sulfate. The structural formula is as follows:

structural formula
(click image for full-size original)

(C9 H13 N)2 ∙H2 SO4 M.W. 368.49

Inactive Ingredients

Calcium sulfate, colloidal silicon dioxide, compressible sugar, corn starch, magnesium stearate, and microcrystalline cellulose. The 5 mg also contains D&C yellow no. 10 aluminum lake and FD&C red no. 40 aluminum lake. The 10 mg also contains FD&C red no. 40 aluminum lake and FD&C yellow no. 6 aluminum lake.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Amphetamines are non-catecholamine, sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. Peripheral actions include elevations of systolic and diastolic blood pressures and weak bronchodilator and respiratory stimulant action.

There is neither specific evidence which clearly establishes the mechanism whereby amphetamines produce mental and behavioral effects in children, nor conclusive evidence regarding how these effects relate to the condition of the central nervous system.

Pharmacokinetics

The pharmacokinetics of the tablet and sustained-release capsule were compared in 12 healthy subjects. The extent of bioavailability of the sustained-release capsule was similar compared to the immediate-release tablet. Following administration of three 5 mg tablets, average maximal dextroamphetamine plasma concentrations (Cmax ) of 36.6 ng/mL were achieved at approximately 3 hours. Following administration of one 15 mg sustained-release capsule, maximal dextroamphetamine plasma concentrations were obtained approximately 8 hours after dosing. The average Cmax was 23.5 ng/mL. The average plasma T1/2 was similar for both the tablet and sustained-release capsule and was approximately 12 hours.

In 12 healthy subjects, the rate and extent of dextroamphetamine absorption were similar following administration of the sustained-release capsule formulation in the fed (58 to 75 gm fat) and fasted state.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Dextroamphetamine Sulfate Tablets are indicated for:

  1. Narcolepsy.
  2. Attention Deficit Disorder with Hyperactivity, as an integral part of a total treatment program which typically includes other remedial measures (psychological, educational, social) for a stabilizing effect in pediatric patients (ages 3 to 16 years) with a behavioral syndrome characterized by the following group of developmentally inappropriate symptoms: moderate to severe distractibility, short attention span, hyperactivity, emotional lability, and impulsivity. The diagnosis of this syndrome should not be made with finality when these symptoms are only of comparatively recent origin. Nonlocalizing (soft) neurological signs, learning disability, and abnormal EEG may or may not be present, and a diagnosis of central nervous system dysfunction may or may not be warranted.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Advanced arteriosclerosis, symptomatic cardiovascular disease, moderate to severe hypertension, hyperthyroidism, known hypersensitivity or idiosyncrasy to the sympathomimetic amines, glaucoma.

Agitated states.

Patients with a history of drug abuse.

During or within 14 days following the administration of monoamine oxidase inhibitors (hypertensive crises may result).

WARNINGS

Serious Cardiovascular Events

Sudden Death in Patients with Pre-existing Structural Cardiac Abnormalities or Other Serious Heart Problems

Children and Adolescents

Sudden death has been reported in association with CNS stimulant treatment at usual doses in children and adolescents with structural cardiac abnormalities or other serious heart problems. Although some serious heart problems alone carry an increased risk of sudden death, stimulant products generally should not be used in children or adolescents with known serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, or other serious cardiac problems that may place them at increased vulnerability to the sympathomimetic effects of a stimulant drug.

Adults

Sudden deaths, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults taking stimulant drugs at usual doses for ADHD. Although the role of stimulants in these adult cases is also unknown, adults have a greater likelihood than children of having serious structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart rhythm abnormalities, coronary artery disease, or other serious cardiac problems. Adults with such abnormalities should also generally not be treated with stimulant drugs (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Hypertension and Other Cardiovascular Conditions

Stimulant medications cause a modest increase in average blood pressure (about 2 to 4 mmHg) and average heart rate (about 3 to 6 bpm), and individuals may have larger increases. While the mean changes alone would not be expected to have short-term consequences, all patients should be monitored for larger changes in heart rate and blood pressure. Caution is indicated in treating patients whose underlying medical conditions might be compromised by increases in blood pressure or heart rate, e.g., those with pre-existing hypertension, heart failure, recent myocardial infarction, or ventricular arrhythmia (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Assessing Cardiovascular Status in Patients Being Treated With Stimulant Medications

Children, adolescents, or adults who are being considered for treatment with stimulant medications should have a careful history (including assessment for a family history of sudden death or ventricular arrhythmia) and physical exam to assess for the presence of cardiac disease, and should receive further cardiac evaluation if findings suggest such disease (e.g., electrocardiogram and echocardiogram). Patients who develop symptoms such as exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or other symptoms suggestive of cardiac disease during stimulant treatment should undergo a prompt cardiac evaluation.

Psychiatric Adverse Events

Pre-Existing Psychosis

Administration of stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a pre-existing psychotic disorder.

Bipolar Illness

Particular care should be taken in using stimulants to treat ADHD in patients with comorbid bipolar disorder because of concern for possible induction of a mixed/manic episode in such patients. Prior to initiating treatment with a stimulant, patients with comorbid depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression.

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