Dextrose

DEXTROSE- dextrose solution
B. Braun Medical Inc.

Concentrated Dextrose in Water

Pharmacy Bulk Package — Not For Direct Infusion.

NOTE: This solution is hypertonic — see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.

DESCRIPTION

Each 100 mL of 70% Dextrose Injection USP contains:

Hydrous Dextrose USP 70 g; Water for Injection USP qs

pH: 4.0 (3.2-6.5); Calculated Osmolarity: 3532 mOsmol/liter, hypertonic.

Specific gravity 1.233 at 25°C

Calories per liter: 2380 calculated on the basis of 3.4 kcal/g of dextrose, hydrous

70% Dextrose Injection USP is sterile, nonpyrogenic and contains no bacteriostatic or antimicrobial agents. This product is intended for intravenous administration after appropriate admixture or dilution as a caloric source.

The formula of the active ingredient is:

Ingredient Molecular Formula Molecular Weight
Hydrous Dextrose USPDextrose Molecular Formula 198.17

Not made with natural rubber latex, PVC or DEHP.

The plastic container is made from a multilayered film specifically developed for parenteral drugs. The solution contact layer is a rubberized copolymer of ethylene and propylene. The container is nontoxic and biologically inert. The container-solution unit is a closed system and is not dependent upon entry of external air during use. The container is overwrapped to provide protection from the physical environment and to provide an additional moisture barrier when necessary.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

70% Dextrose Injection USP provides calories and is a source of water for hydration. It is capable of inducing diuresis depending on the clinical condition of the patient.

Dextrose is readily metabolized, may decrease losses of body protein and nitrogen, promotes glycogen deposition and decreases or prevents ketosis if sufficient doses are provided.

Water is an essential constituent of all body tissues and accounts for approximately 70% of total body weight. Average normal adult daily requirements range from two to three liters (1.0 to 1.5 liters each for insensible water loss by perspiration and urine production).

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

70% Dextrose Injection USP is indicated as a caloric component in a parenteral nutrition regimen. 70% Dextrose Injection USP is used with an appropriate protein (nitrogen) source in the prevention of nitrogen loss or in the treatment of negative nitrogen balance in patients where: (1) the alimentary tract cannot or should not be used, (2) gastrointestinal absorption of protein is impaired, or (3) metabolic requirements for protein are substantially increased, as with extensive burns.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

The infusion of 70% Dextrose Injection USP is contraindicated in patients having intracranial or intraspinal hemorrhage, in patients who are severely dehydrated, in patients who are anuric, and in patients in hepatic coma.

Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity to corn products.

WARNINGS

This injection is for compounding only, not for direct infusion.

Dilute before use to a concentration which will, when administered with an amino acid (nitrogen) source, result in an appropriate calorie to gram of nitrogen ratio and which has an osmolarity consistent with the route of administration.

Unless appropriately diluted, the infusion of hypertonic dextrose injection into a peripheral vein may result in vein irritation, vein damage, and thrombosis. Strongly hypertonic nutrient solutions should only be administered through an indwelling intravenous catheter with the tip located in a large central vein such as the superior vena cava.

Use of 70% Dextrose Injection USP to prepare parenteral nutritional admixtures may be incompatible with other components, especially calcium and phosphate salts and lipid emulsions. Incompatibility of admixed components can produce precipitates which may cause particulate emboli. Use 70% Dextrose Injection USP only to prepare formulations that are known to be stable: refer to standard texts for further information.

The administration of intravenous solutions can cause fluid and/or solute overload resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte concentrations, overhydration, congested states or pulmonary edema. The risk of dilutional states is inversely proportional to the electrolyte concentration.

WARNING: 70% Dextrose Injection USP contains aluminum that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum.

Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum at levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

Prolonged infusion of isotonic or hypotonic dextrose in water may increase the volume of extracellular fluid and cause water intoxication.

Solutions containing dextrose without electrolytes should not be administered simultaneously with blood through the same infusion set because of the possibility of agglomeration.

Excessive administration of potassium-free dextrose solutions may result in significant hypokalemia. Serum potassium levels should be maintained and potassium supplemented as required.

In very low birth weight infants, excessive or rapid administration of dextrose injection may result in increased serum osmolality and possible intracerebral hemorrhage.

PRECAUTIONS

General

This solution should be used with care in patients with hypervolemia, renal insufficiency, urinary tract obstruction, or impending or frank cardiac decompensation.

Solutions containing dextrose should be used with caution in patients with overt or known subclinical diabetes mellitus or carbohydrate intolerance for any reason.

Essential electrolytes, minerals, and vitamins should be supplied as needed.

Hypokalemia may develop during parenteral administration of hypertonic dextrose solutions. Sufficient amounts of potassium should be added to dextrose solutions administered to fasting patients with good renal function, especially those on digitalis therapy.

To minimize the risk of possible incompatibilities arising from mixing this solution with other additives that may be prescribed, the final infusate should be inspected for cloudiness or precipitation immediately after mixing, prior to administration, and periodically during administration. See WARNINGS.

Do not use plastic container in series connection.

If administration of 70% Dextrose Injection USP after admixture or dilution is controlled by a pumping device, care must be taken to discontinue pumping action before the container runs dry or air embolism may result. If administration is not controlled by a pumping device, refrain from applying excessive pressure (>300mmHg) causing distortion to the container such as wringing or twisting. Such handling could result in breakage of the container.

This solution is intended for intravenous administration after admixture or dilution using sterile equipment. When using an automated compounding device replace all disposable components as recommended by manufacturer and at least every 24 hours.

Aseptic technique is essential with the use of sterile preparations for compounding nutritional admixtures. Discard container within 4 hours of entering closure.

Administration of hypertonic dextrose and amino acid solutions via central venous catheter may be associated with complications which can be prevented or minimized by careful attention to all aspects of the procedure. This includes attention to solution preparation, administration and patient monitoring.

It is essential that a carefully prepared protocol, based upon current medical practice, be followed, preferably by an experienced team. The package insert of the protein (nitrogen) source should be consulted for dosage and all precautionary information.

Use only if solution is clear and container and seals are intact.

70% Dextrose Injection USP contains no more than 25 mcg/L of aluminum.

Laboratory Tests

Clinical evaluation and periodic laboratory determinations are necessary to monitor changes in fluid balance, electrolyte concentrations, and acid-base balance during prolonged parenteral therapy or whenever the condition of the patient warrants such evaluation. Significant deviations from normal concentrations may require tailoring of the electrolyte pattern, in these or alternative solutions.

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