Diazepam (Page 3 of 4)

Postmarketing Experience

Injury, Poisoning and Procedural Complications: There have been reports of falls and fractures in benzodiazepine users. The risk is increased in those taking concomitant sedatives (including alcohol), and in the elderly.

DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

Diazepam is subject to Schedule IV control under the Controlled Substances Act of 1970. Abuse and dependence of benzodiazepines have been reported. Addiction-prone individuals (such as drug addicts or alcoholics) should be under careful surveillance when receiving diazepam or other psychotropic agents because of the predisposition of such patients to habituation and dependence. Once physical dependence to benzodiazepines has developed, termination of treatment will be accompanied by withdrawal symptoms. The risk is more pronounced in patients on long-term therapy.

Withdrawal symptoms, similar in character to those noted with barbiturates and alcohol have occurred following abrupt discontinuance of diazepam. These withdrawal symptoms may consist of tremor, abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, headache, muscle pain, extreme anxiety, tension, restlessness, confusion and irritability. In severe cases, the following symptoms may occur: derealization, depersonalization, hyperacusis, numbness and tingling of the extremities, hypersensitivity to light, noise and physical contact, hallucinations or epileptic seizures. The more severe withdrawal symptoms have usually been limited to those patients who had received excessive doses over an extended period of time. Generally milder withdrawal symptoms (e.g., dysphoria and insomnia) have been reported following abrupt discontinuance of benzodiazepines taken continuously at therapeutic levels for several months. Consequently, after extended therapy, abrupt discontinuation should generally be avoided and a gradual dosage tapering schedule followed.

Chronic use (even at therapeutic doses) may lead to the development of physical dependence: discontinuation of the therapy may result in withdrawal or rebound phenomena.

Rebound Anxiety: A transient syndrome whereby the symptoms that led to treatment with diazepam recur in an enhanced form. This may occur upon discontinuation of treatment. It may be accompanied by other reactions including mood changes, anxiety, and restlessness.

Since the risk of withdrawal phenomena and rebound phenomena is greater after abrupt discontinuation of treatment, it is recommended that the dosage be decreased gradually.

OVERDOSAGE

Overdose of benzodiazepines is usually manifested by central nervous system depression ranging from drowsiness to coma. In mild cases, symptoms include drowsiness, confusion, and lethargy. In more serious cases, symptoms may include ataxia, diminished reflexes, hypotonia, hypotension, respiratory depression, coma (rarely), and death (very rarely). Overdose of benzodiazepines in combination with other CNS depressants (including alcohol) may be fatal and should be closely monitored.

Management of Overdosage

Following overdose with oral benzodiazepines, general supportive measures should be employed including the monitoring of respiration, pulse, and blood pressure. Vomiting should be induced (within 1 hour) if the patient is conscious. Gastric lavage should be undertaken with the airway protected if the patient is unconscious. Intravenous fluids should be administered. If there is no advantage in emptying the stomach, activated charcoal should be given to reduce absorption. Special attention should be paid to respiratory and cardiac function in intensive care. General supportive measures should be employed, along with intravenous fluids, and an adequate airway maintained. Should hypotension develop, treatment may include intravenous fluid therapy, repositioning, judicious use of vasopressors appropriate to the clinical situation, if indicated, and other appropriate countermeasures. Dialysis is of limited value.

As with the management of intentional overdosage with any drug, it should be considered that multiple agents may have been ingested.

Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine-receptor antagonist, is indicated for the complete or partial reversal of the sedative effects of benzodiazepines and may be used in situations when an overdose with a benzodiazepine is known or suspected. Prior to the administration of flumazenil, necessary measures should be instituted to secure airway, ventilation and intravenous access. Flumazenil is intended as an adjunct to, not as a substitute for, proper management of benzodiazepine overdose. Patients treated with flumazenil should be monitored for resedation, respiratory depression and other residual benzodiazepine effects for an appropriate period after treatment. The prescriber should be aware of a risk of seizure in association with flumazenil treatment, particularly in long-term benzodiazepine users and in cyclic antidepressant overdose. Caution should be observed in the use of flumazenil in epileptic patients treated with benzodiazepines. The complete flumazenil package insert, including CONTRAINDICATIONS, WARNINGS , and PRECAUTIONS , should be consulted prior to use.

Withdrawal symptoms of the barbiturate type have occurred after the discontinuation of benzodiazepines (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Dosage should be individualized for maximum beneficial effect. While the usual daily dosages given below will meet the needs of most patients, there will be some who may require higher doses. In such cases dosage should be increased cautiously to avoid adverse effects.

ADULTS:

USUAL DAILY DOSE

Management of Anxiety Disorders and Relief of Symptoms of Anxiety

Depending upon severity of symptoms – 2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily

Symptomatic Relief in Acute Alcohol Withdrawal

10 mg, 3 or 4 times during the first 24 hours, reducing to 5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily as needed

Adjunctively for Relief of Skeletal Muscle Spasm

2 mg to 10 mg, 3 or 4 times daily

Adjunctively in Convulsive Disorders

2 mg to 10 mg, 2 to 4 times daily

Geriatric Patients, or in the presence of debilitating disease

2 mg to 2.5 mg, 1 or 2 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated

PEDIATRIC PATIENTS:

Because of varied responses to CNS-acting drugs, initiate therapy with lowest dose and increase as required. Not for use in pediatric patients under 6 months.

1 mg to 2.5 mg, 3 or 4 times daily initially; increase gradually as needed and tolerated

HOW SUPPLIED

Diazepam Tablets USP, 10 mg are available as light blue, round, flat face, beveled edge tablets, debossed “3927” and bisected on one side and “TEVA” on the other side, containing 10 mg of diazepam, USP.

100 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-00)
120 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-02)
5 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-05)
7 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-07)
8 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-08)
10 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-10)
14 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-14)
20 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-20)
2 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-29)
30 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-30)
3 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-31)
60 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-60)
90 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-185-90)

Diazepam Tablets USP, 5 mg are available as yellow, round, flat face, beveled edge tablets, debossed “3926” and bisected on one side and “TEVA” on the other side, containing 5 mg of diazepam, USP.

100 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-00)
120 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-02)
5 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-05)
7 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-07)
8 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-08)
10 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-10)
14 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-14)
20 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-20)
2 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-29)
30 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-30)
3 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-31)
60 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-60)
90 TABLET in a BOTTLE (53217-184-90)

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP, with a child-resistant closure (as required).

KEEP THIS AND ALL MEDICATIONS OUT OF THE REACH OF CHILDREN.

Repackaged by

Aidarex Pharmaceuticals, LLC

Corona, CA 92880

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