Diclofenac Potassium (Page 7 of 8)


13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term carcinogenicity studies in rats given diclofenac sodium up to 2 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.2 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of diclofenac potassium, 100 mg/day, based on body surface area (BSA) comparison) have revealed no significant increase in tumor incidence. A 2-year carcinogenicity study conducted in mice employing diclofenac sodium at doses up to 0.3 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.014 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison) in males and 1 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.04 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison) in females did not reveal any oncogenic potential.

Diclofenac sodium did not show mutagenic activity in in vitro point mutation assays in mammalian (mouse lymphoma) and microbial (yeast, Ames) test systems and was nonmutagenic in several mammalian in vitro and in vivo tests, including dominant lethal and male germinal epithelial chromosomal aberration studies in Chinese hamsters.

Impairment of Fertility Diclofenac sodium administered to male and female rats at 4 mg/kg/day (approximately 0.4 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison) did not affect fertility.

However, published studies report that treatment of adult male rats with diclofenac by the oral route at 10 mg/kg (1 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison) for 14 days and at 0.25 mg/kg (0.025 times the MRHD based on BSA comparison) for 30 days produced adverse effects on male reproductive hormones and testes.


The efficacy of diclofenac potassium in adults was demonstrated in two multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm, multiple-dose clinical trials comparing diclofenac potassium 25 mg and placebo in patients with pain following bunionectomy with osteotomy. Once patients met the criteria for randomization (pain intensity ≥ 4 on a 0 to 10 numerical pain rating scale) they received their initial dose of study medication followed by a remedication dose when requested by the patient, and were then dosed every six hours over four days. Pain intensity was recorded at 3 hours and 6 hours postdose during the fixed dosing period. In Study 1, mean baseline pain intensity scores were 6.9 in the diclofenac potassium group (range: 4 to 10) and 7.3 in the placebo group (range: 4 to 10). In both studies, patients treated with diclofenac potassium had a lower mean pain intensity score over the 48-hour inpatient period following the first remedication dose (see Figure 1). The median time to onset of pain relief was less than one hour for diclofenac potassium 25 mg across the clinical trials.

The results were similar in Study 2.

Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)

Figure 1 Mean Pain Intensity Scores at the Midpoint and End of Each Dose Interval in Postbunionectomy Pain Study 1


Diclofenac potassium capsules 25 mg, are translucent, pale yellow, liquid-filled capsules printed with “ TV ” over “ 9435 ” in black ink supplied as:

NDC Number 0480-9435-89 Bottles of 120 Capsules


Store at 20° to 25º C (68° to 77º F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].

Protect from moisture.

Dispense in tight container (USP).


Advise the patient to read the FDA-approved patient labeling (Medication Guide) that accompanies each prescription dispensed. Inform patients, families, or their caregivers of the following information before initiating therapy with diclofenac potassium capsules and periodically during the course of ongoing therapy.

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of cardiovascular thrombotic events, including chest pain, shortness of breath, weakness, or slurring of speech, and to report any of these symptoms to their health care provider immediately [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1) ].

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation
Advise patients to report symptoms of ulcerations and bleeding, including epigastric pain, dyspepsia, melena, and hematemesis to their health care provider. In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, inform patients of the increased risk for and the signs and symptoms of GI bleeding [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2) ].

Inform patients of the warning signs and symptoms of hepatotoxicity (e.g., nausea, fatigue, lethargy, pruritus, diarrhea, jaundice, right upper quadrant tenderness, and “flu-like” symptoms). If these occur, instruct patients to stop diclofenac potassium capsules and seek immediate medical therapy [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3) ].

Heart Failure and Edema
Advise patients to be alert for the symptoms of congestive heart failure including shortness of breath, unexplained weight gain, or edema and to contact their healthcare provider if such symptoms occur [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.5) ].

Anaphylactic Reactions
Inform patients of the signs of an anaphylactic reaction (e.g., difficulty breathing, swelling of the face or throat). Instruct patients to seek immediate emergency help if these occur [ see Contraindications ( 4) and Warnings and Precautions ( 5.7) ].

Serious Skin Reactions, including DRESS
Advise patients to stop taking diclofenac potassium capsules immediately if they develop any type of rash or fever and to contact their healthcare provider as soon as possible [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.9, 5.10) ].

Female Fertility
Advise females of reproductive potential who desire pregnancy that NSAIDs, including diclofenac potassium capsules, may be associated with a reversible delay in ovulation [ see Use in Specific Populations ( 8.3) ].

Fetal Toxicity

Inform pregnant women to avoid use of diclofenac potassium capsules and other NSAIDs starting at 30 weeks gestation because of the risk of the premature closing of the fetal ductus arteriosus. If treatment with diclofenac potassium capsules is needed for a pregnant woman between about 20 weeks to 30 weeks gestation, advise her that she may need to be monitored for oligohydramnios if treatment continues for longer than 48 hours [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.11) and Use in Specific Populations ( 8.1) ].

Avoid Concomitant Use of NSAIDs

Inform patients that the concomitant use of diclofenac potassium capsules with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) is not recommended due to the increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity, and little or no increase in efficacy [ see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2) and Drug Interactions ( 7) ]. Alert patients that NSAIDs may be present in “over the counter” medications for treatment of colds, fever, or insomnia.

Use of NSAIDs and Low-Dose Aspirin
Inform patients not to use low-dose aspirin concomitantly with diclofenac potassium capsules until they talk to their healthcare provider [ see Drug Interactions ( 7) ].

Manufactured for:
Teva Pharmaceuticals Parsippany, NJ 07054

Made in USA

Rev. 9/2021

Medication Guide for Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)
What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)? NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including:
  • Increased risk of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This risk may happen early in treatment and may increase:
o with increasing doses of NSAIDs o with longer use of NSAIDs Do not take NSAIDs right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (CABG).” Avoid taking NSAIDs after a recent heart attack, unless your healthcare provider tells you to. You may have an increased risk of another heart attack if you take NSAIDs after a recent heart attack.
  • Increased risk of bleeding, ulcers, and tears (perforation) of the esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), stomach and intestines:

o anytime during use o without warning symptoms o that may cause death The risk of getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with: o past history of stomach ulcers, or stomach or intestinal bleeding with use of NSAIDs o taking medicines called “corticosteroids”, “anticoagulants”, “SSRIs”, or “SNRIs”

o increasing doses of NSAIDs

o longer use of NSAIDs

o smoking

o drinking alcohol

o older age

o poor health

o advanced liver disease

o bleeding problems

NSAIDs should only be used: o exactly as prescribed o at the lowest dose possible for your treatment o for the shortest time needed

What are NSAIDs? NSAIDs are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as different types of arthritis, menstrual cramps, and other types of short-term pain.
Who should not take NSAIDs? Do not take NSAIDs:
  • if you have had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAIDs.
  • right before or after heart bypass surgery.
Before taking NSAIDS, tell your healthcare provider about all of your medical conditions, including if you:
  • have liver or kidney problems
  • have high blood pressure
  • have asthma
  • are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. Taking NSAIDs at about 20 weeks of pregnancy or later may harm your unborn baby. If you need to take NSAIDs for more than 2 days when you are between 20 weeks and 30 weeks of pregnancy, your healthcare provider may need to monitor the amount of fluid in your womb around your baby. You should not take NSAIDs after about 30 weeks of pregnancy.
  • are breastfeeding or plan to breast feed.
Tell your healthcare provider about all of the medicines you take, including prescription or over-the-counter medicines, vitamins or herbal supplements . NSAIDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Do not start taking any new medicine without talking to your healthcare provider first.
What are the possible side effects of NSAIDs? NSAIDs can cause serious side effects, including: See “What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)?“
  • new or worse high blood pressure
  • heart failure
  • liver problems including liver failure
  • kidney problems including kidney failure
  • low red blood cells (anemia)
  • life-threatening skin reactions
  • life-threatening allergic reactions
  • Other side effects of NSAIDs include: stomach pain, constipation, diarrhea, gas, heartburn, nausea, vomiting, and dizziness.

Get emergency help right away if you get any of the following symptoms:

  • shortness of breath or trouble breathing
  • chest pain
  • weakness in one part or side of your body
  • slurred speech
  • swelling of the face or throat
Stop taking your NSAID and call your healthcare provider right away if you get any of the following symptoms:
  • nausea
  • more tired or weaker than usual
  • diarrhea
  • itching
  • your skin or eyes look yellow
  • indigestion or stomach pain
  • flu-like symptoms
  • vomit blood
  • there is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky like tar
  • unusual weight gain
  • skin rash or blisters with fever
  • swelling of the arms, legs, hands and feet

If you take too much of your NSAID, call your healthcare provider or get medical help right away. These are not all the possible side effects of NSAIDs. For more information, ask your healthcare provider or pharmacist about NSAIDs.

Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.

Other information about NSAIDs
  • Aspirin is an NSAID but it does not increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines.
  • Some NSAIDs are sold in lower doses without a prescription (over-the counter). Talk to your healthcare provider before using over-the-counter NSAIDs for more than 10 days.

General information about the safe and effective use of NSAIDs

Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use NSAIDs for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give NSAIDs to other people, even if they have the same symptoms that you have. It may harm them.

If you would like more information about NSAIDs, talk with your healthcare provider. You can ask your pharmacist or healthcare provider for information about NSAIDs that is written for health professionals.

Manufactured for: Teva Pharmaceuticals Parsippany, NJ 07054 Made in USA

For more information, call 1-888-235-BION

This Medication Guide has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Revised: September 2021

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2023. All Rights Reserved.