Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol (Page 4 of 11)

5.12 Hematologic Toxicity

Anemia has occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with diclofenac sodium and misoprostol has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.

NSAIDs, including diclofenac a component of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders or concomitant use of warfarin and other anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs (e.g., aspirin), and SSRIs and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5.13 Masking of Inflammation and Fever

The pharmacological activity of diclofenac, a component of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.

5.14 Laboratory Monitoring

Because serious GI bleeding, hepatotoxicity, and renal injury can occur without warning symptoms or signs, consider monitoring patients on long-term NSAID treatment with a complete blood count (CBC) and a chemistry profile periodically [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.6)].

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
GI Bleeding, Ulceration and Perforation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
Hypertension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Heart Failure and Edema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Renal Toxicity and Hyperkalemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
Anaphylactic Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]
Serious Skin Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]
Hematologic Toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]

6.1 Clinical Trials Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Adverse reaction information for diclofenac sodium and misoprostol is derived from multinational controlled clinical trials in over 2,000 patients receiving diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, 50 mg/0.2 mg or diclofenac sodium and misoprostol delayed-release tablets, 75 mg/0.2 mg, as well as from blinded, controlled trials of diclofenac sodium delayed-release tablets and misoprostol tablets.

Gastrointestinal

GI disorders had the highest reported incidence of adverse reactions for patients receiving diclofenac sodium and misoprostol. These events were generally minor, but led to discontinuation of therapy in 9% of patients on diclofenac sodium and misoprostol and 5% of patients on diclofenac sodium. For GI ulcer rates, [see Clinical Studies (14)].

GI disorder

Diclofenac Sodium and Misoprostol

Diclofenac Sodium

Abdominal pain

21%

15%

Diarrhea

19%

11%

Dyspepsia

14%

11%

Nausea

11%

6%

Flatulence

9%

4%

Diclofenac sodium and misoprostol can cause more abdominal pain, diarrhea, and other GI symptoms than diclofenac alone.

Diarrhea and abdominal pain developed early in the course of therapy, and were usually self-limited (resolved after 2 to 7 days). Rare instances of profound diarrhea leading to severe dehydration have been reported in patients receiving misoprostol. Patients with an underlying condition such as inflammatory bowel disease, or those in whom dehydration, were it to occur, would be dangerous, should be monitored carefully if diclofenac sodium and misoprostol is prescribed. The incidence of diarrhea can be minimized by administering diclofenac sodium and misoprostol with food and by avoiding coadministration with magnesium-containing antacids.

Gynecological

Gynecological disorders previously reported with misoprostol use have also been reported for women receiving diclofenac sodium and misoprostol (see below). Postmenopausal vaginal bleeding may be related to administration of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol. If it occurs, diagnostic workup should be undertaken to rule out gynecological pathology [see Boxed Warnings, Contraindications (4) and Warnings and Precautions (5)].

Elderly

Overall, there were no significant differences in the safety profile of diclofenac sodium and misoprostol in over 500 patients 65 years of age or older compared with younger patients.

Other adverse experiences reported occasionally with diclofenac sodium and misoprostol, diclofenac or other NSAIDs, or misoprostol are:

Body as a whole: asthenia, fatigue, malaise.

Central and peripheral nervous system: dizziness, drowsiness, headache, insomnia, paresthesia, vertigo.

Digestive: anorexia, appetite changes, constipation, dry mouth, dysphagia, esophageal ulceration, esophagitis, eructation, gastritis, gastroesophageal reflux, GI neoplasm benign, peptic ulcer, tenesmus, vomiting.

Female reproductive disorders: breast pain, dysmenorrhea, menstrual disorder, menorrhagia, vaginal hemorrhage.

Hemic and lymphatic system: epistaxis, leukopenia, melena, purpura, decreased hematocrit.

Metabolic and nutritional: alanine aminotransferase increased, alkaline phosphatase increased, aspartate aminotransferase increased, dehydration, hyponatremia.

Musculoskeletal system: arthralgia, myalgia.

Psychiatric: anxiety, concentration impaired, depression, irritability.

Respiratory system: asthma, coughing, hyperventilation.

Skin and appendages: alopecia, eczema, pemphigoid reaction, photosensitivity, sweating increased, pruritus.

Special senses: taste perversion, tinnitus.

Renal and urinary disorders: dysuria, nocturia, polyuria, proteinuria, urinary tract infection.

Vision: diplopia.

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