Central Nervous System: tingling, numbness, dyskinesia, speech disturbance, insomnia
Peripheral Nervous System: With overdosage, a curare-like action may occur (i.e., neuromuscular blockade leading to muscular weakness and possible paralysis)
Ophthalmologic: diplopia, increased ocular tension
Dermatologic/Allergic: urticaria, itching and other dermal manifestations
Genitourinary: urinary hesitancy, urinary retention in patients with prostatic hypertrophy
Other: decreased sweating, sneezing, throat congestion, impotence
Anticholinergics antagonize the effects of antiglaucoma agents. Anticholinergic drugs in the presence of increased intraocular pressure may be hazardous when taken concurrently with agents such as corticosteroids. Use of dicyclomine in patients with glaucoma is not recommended [see Contraindications (4)].
The following agents may increase certain actions or side effects of anticholinergic drugs including dicyclomine: amantadine, antiarrhythmic agents of Class I (e.g., quinidine), antihistamines, antipsychotic agents (e.g., phenothiazines), benzodiazepines, MAO inhibitors, narcotic analgesics (e.g., meperidine), nitrates and nitrites, sympathomimetic agents, tricyclic antidepressants and other drugs having anticholinergic activity.
Interaction with other gastrointestinal motility drugs may antagonize the effects of drugs that alter gastrointestinal motility, such as metoclopramide.
Because antacids may interfere with the absorption of anticholinergic agents including dicyclomine, simultaneous use of these drugs should be avoided.
Anticholinergic agents may affect gastrointestinal absorption of various drugs by affecting on gastrointestinal motility, such as slowly dissolving dosage forms of digoxin; increased serum digoxin concentration may result.
The inhibiting effects of anticholinergic drugs on gastric hydrochloric acid secretion are antagonized by agents used to treat achlorhydria and those used to test gastric secretion.
Adequate and well-controlled studies have not been conducted with dicyclomine in pregnant women at the recommended doses of 80 mg/day to 160 mg/day. However, epidemiologic studies did not show an increased risk of structural malformations among babies born to women who took products containing dicyclomine hydrochloride at doses up to 40 mg/day during the first trimester of pregnancy. Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 33 times the maximum recommended human dose based on 160 mg/day (3 mg/kg) and have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to dicyclomine. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
Dicyclomine is contraindicated in women who are breastfeeding. Dicyclomine hydrochloride is excreted in human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breast-fed infants from dicyclomine, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)] .
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.
Dicyclomine is contraindicated in infants less than 6 months of age [see Contraindications (4)]. There are published cases reporting that the administration of dicyclomine hydrochloride to infants has been followed by serious respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, shortness of breath, breathlessness, respiratory collapse, apnea and asphyxia), seizures, syncope, pulse rate fluctuations, muscular hypotonia, and coma and death, however; no causal relationship has been established.
Clinical studies of dicyclomine did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range in adults, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal or cardiac function and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy .
Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.
Effects of renal impairment on PK, safety and efficacy of dicyclomine have not been studied. Dicyclomine drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Dicyclomine should be administered with caution in patients with renal impairment.
Effects of renal impairment on PK, safety and efficacy of dicyclomine have not been studied. Dicyclomine should be administered with caution in patients with hepatic impairment.
In case of an overdose, patients should contact a physician, poison control center (1-800-222-1222), or emergency room.
The signs and symptoms of overdosage include: headache; nausea; vomiting; blurred vision; dilated pupils; hot, dry skin; dizziness; dryness of the mouth; difficulty in swallowing; and CNS stimulation including convulsion. A curare-like action may occur (i.e., neuromuscular blockade leading to muscular weakness and possible paralysis).
One reported event included a 37 year old who reported numbness on the left side, cold fingertips, blurred vision, abdominal and flank pain, decreased appetite, dry mouth and nervousness following ingestion of 320 mg daily (four 20 mg tablets 4 times daily). These events resolved after discontinuing the dicyclomine.
The acute oral LD 50 of the drug is 625 mg/kg in mice.
The amount of drug in a single dose that is ordinarily associated with symptoms of overdosage or that is likely to be life threatening, has not been defined. The maximum human oral dose recorded was 600 mg by mouth in a 10 month old child and approximately 1500 mg in an adult, each of whom survived. In three of the infants who died following administration of dicyclomine hydrochloride [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)], the blood concentrations of drug were 200 ng/mL, 220 ng/mL, and 505 ng/mL.
It is not known if dicyclomine is dialyzable.
Treatment should consist of gastric lavage, emetics and activated charcoal. Sedatives (e.g., short-acting barbiturates, benzodiazepines) may be used for management of overt signs of excitement. If indicated, an appropriate parenteral cholinergic agent may be used as an antidote.
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