Dicyclomine Hydrochloride (Page 4 of 5)

11 DESCRIPTION

Dicyclomine hydrochloride is an antispasmodic and anticholinergic (antimuscarinic) agent.

Chemically, dicyclomine hydrochloride is [bicyclohexyl]-1-carboxylic acid, 2-(diethylamino) ethyl ester, hydrochloride with the following structural formula, molecular weight, and molecular formula:

Dicyclomine Hydrochloride Structural Formula

Dicyclomine hydrochloride, USP occurs as a fine, white, crystalline, practically odorless powder with a bitter taste. It is soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol and chloroform, and very slightly soluble in ether.

Dicyclomine hydrochloride capsules, USP, for oral administration, contain 10 mg of dicyclomine hydrochloride, USP. Each capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 1, gelatin, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch (corn), sodium lauryl sulfate and titanium dioxide.

In addition the imprinting ink contains the following: black iron oxide, D&C Yellow No. 10 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Blue No. 2 Aluminum Lake, FD&C Red No. 40 Aluminum Lake, pharmaceutical glaze and propylene glycol.

Dicyclomine hydrochloride tablets, USP, for oral administration, contain 20 mg of dicyclomine hydrochloride, USP. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, colloidal silicon dioxide, FD&C Blue No. 1 Aluminum Lake, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, pregelatinized starch (corn) and sodium lauryl sulfate.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Dicyclomine relieves smooth muscle spasm of the gastrointestinal tract. Animal studies indicate that this action is achieved via a dual mechanism:

  • a specific anticholinergic effect (antimuscarinic) at the acetylcholine-receptor sites with approximately 1/8 the milligram potency of atropine ( in vitro , guinea pig ileum); and
  • a direct effect upon smooth muscle (musculotropic) as evidenced by dicyclomine’s antagonism of bradykinin- and histamine-induced spasms of the isolated guinea pig ileum.

Atropine did not affect responses to these two agonists. In vivo studies in cats and dogs showed dicyclomine to be equally potent against acetylcholine (ACh)- or barium chloride (BaCl 2 )-induced intestinal spasm while atropine was at least 200 times more potent against effects of ACh than BaCl 2 . Tests for mydriatic effects in mice showed that dicyclomine was approximately 1/500 as potent as atropine; antisialagogue tests in rabbits showed dicyclomine to be 1/300 as potent as atropine.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Dicyclomine can inhibit the secretion of saliva and sweat, decrease gastrointestinal secretions and motility, cause drowsiness, dilate the pupils, increase heart rate and depress motor function.

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption and Distribution

In man, dicyclomine is rapidly absorbed after oral administration, reaching peak values within 60 to 90 minutes. Mean volume of distribution for a 20 mg oral dose is approximately 3.65 L/kg suggesting extensive distribution in tissues.

Elimination

The metabolism of dicyclomine was not studied. The principal route of excretion is via the urine (79.5% of the dose). Excretion also occurs in the feces, but to a lesser extent (8.4%). Mean half-life of plasma elimination in one study was determined to be approximately 1.8 hours when plasma concentrations were measured for 9 hours after a single dose. In subsequent studies, plasma concentrations were followed for up to 24 hours after a single dose, showing a secondary phase of elimination with a somewhat longer half-life.

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Long-term animal studies have not been conducted to evaluate the carcinogenic potential of dicyclomine. In studies in rats at doses of up to 100 mg/kg/day, dicyclomine produced no deleterious effects on breeding, conception or parturition.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

In controlled clinical trials involving over 100 patients who received drug, 82% of patients treated for functional bowel/irritable bowel syndrome with dicyclomine hydrochloride at initial doses of 160 mg daily (40 mg 4 times daily) demonstrated a favorable clinical response compared with 55% treated with placebo (p < 0.05).

16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING

Dicyclomine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP are available containing 10 mg of dicyclomine hydrochloride, USP.

The 10 mg capsules are a hard-shell gelatin capsule with a light turquoise blue opaque cap and light turquoise blue opaque body filled with a white to off-white powder. The capsule is axially printed with MYLAN over 1610 in black ink on both the cap and the body. They are available as follows:

NDC 51079-118-20 – Unit dose blister packages of 100 (10 cards of 10 capsules each).

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

Dicyclomine Hydrochloride Tablets, USP are available containing 20 mg of dicyclomine hydrochloride, USP.

The 20 mg tablets are blue, round, unscored tablets debossed with M over D6 on one side of the tablet and blank on the other side. They are available as follows.

NDC 51079-119-20 – Unit dose blister packages of 100 (10 cards of 10 tablets each).

Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F). [See USP Controlled Room Temperature.]

To prevent fading, avoid exposure to direct sunlight.

.

17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

17.2 Use in Infants

Inform parents and caregivers not to administer dicyclomine in infants less than 6 months of age [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

17.3 Use in Nursing Mothers

Advise lactating women that dicyclomine should not be used while breastfeeding their infants [see Use in Specific Populations (8.3, 8.4)] .

17.4 Peripheral and Central Nervous System

In the presence of a high environmental temperature, heat prostration can occur with dicyclomine use (fever and heat stroke due to decreased sweating). If symptoms occur, the drug should be discontinued and a physician contacted. Dicyclomine may produce drowsiness or blurred vision. The patient should be warned not to engage in activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating a motor vehicle or other machinery or to perform hazardous work while taking dicyclomine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].

Manufactured by:
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.
Morgantown, WV 26505 U.S.A.

Distributed by:
Mylan Institutional Inc.
Rockford, IL 61103 U.S.A.

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