Difluprednate Ophthalmic

DIFLUPREDNATE OPHTHALMIC- difluprednate emulsion
Sandoz Inc

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Ocular Surgery

Difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion, 0.05%, a topical corticosteroid, is indicated for the treatment of inflammation and pain associated with ocular surgery.

1.2 Endogenous Anterior Uveitis

Difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion is also indicated for the treatment of endogenous anterior uveitis.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Ocular Surgery

Instill one drop into the conjunctival sac of the affected eye 4 times daily beginning 24 hours after surgery and continuing throughout the first 2 weeks of the postoperative period, followed by 2 times daily for a week and then a taper based on the response.

2.2 Endogenous Anterior Uveitis

Instill one drop into the conjunctival sac of the affected eye 4 times daily for 14 days followed by tapering as clinically indicated.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion contains 0.05% difluprednate as a sterile preserved emulsion for topical ophthalmic administration.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

The use of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion, as with other ophthalmic corticosteroids, is contraindicated in most active viral diseases of the cornea and conjunctiva, including epithelial herpes simplex keratitis (dendritic keratitis), vaccinia, and varicella, and also in mycobacterial infection of the eye and fungal disease of ocular structures.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Intraocular Pressure Increase

Prolonged use of corticosteroids may result in glaucoma with damage to the optic nerve, defects in visual acuity and fields of vision. Steroids should be used with caution in the presence of glaucoma. If this product is used for 10 days or longer, intraocular pressure (IOP) should be monitored.

5.2 Cataracts

Use of corticosteroids may result in posterior subcapsular cataract formation.

5.3 Delayed Healing

The use of steroids after cataract surgery may delay healing and increase the incidence of bleb formation. In those diseases causing thinning of the cornea or sclera, perforations have been known to occur with the use of topical steroids. The initial prescription and renewal of the medication order beyond 28 days should be made by a physician only after examination of the patient with the aid of magnification, such as slit lamp biomicroscopy, and where appropriate, fluorescein staining.

5.4 Bacterial Infections

Prolonged use of corticosteroids may suppress the host response and thus increase the hazard of secondary ocular infections. In acute purulent conditions, steroids may mask infection or enhance existing infection. If signs and symptoms fail to improve after 2 days, the patient should be reevaluated.

5.5 Viral Infections

Employment of a corticosteroid medication in the treatment of patients with a history of herpes simplex requires great caution. Use of ocular steroids may prolong the course and may exacerbate the severity of many viral infections of the eye (including herpes simplex).

5.6 Fungal Infections

Fungal infections of the cornea are particularly prone to develop coincidentally with long-term local steroid application. Fungus invasion must be considered in any persistent corneal ulceration where a steroid has been used or is in use. Fungal culture should be taken when appropriate.

5.7 Topical Ophthalmic Use Only

Difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion is not indicated for intraocular administration.

5.8 Contact Lens Wear

Difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion should not be instilled while wearing contact lenses. Remove contact lenses prior to instillation of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion. The preservative in difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion may be absorbed by soft contact lenses. Lenses may be reinserted after 10 minutes following administration of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious reactions are found elsewhere in the labeling:

Elevated IOP [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Posterior subcapsular cataract formation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
Secondary ocular infection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
Perforation of the globe [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]

6.1 Ocular Surgery

Ocular adverse reactions occurring in 5% to 15% of subjects in clinical studies with difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion included corneal edema, ciliary and conjunctival hyperemia, eye pain, photophobia, posterior capsule opacification, anterior chamber cells, anterior chamber flare, conjunctival edema, and blepharitis. Other ocular adverse reactions occurring in 1% to 5% of subjects, included reduced visual acuity, punctate keratitis, eye inflammation, and iritis. Ocular adverse reactions occurring in less than 1% of subjects, included application-site discomfort or irritation, corneal pigmentation and striae, episcleritis, eye pruritus, eyelid irritation and crusting, foreign body sensation, increased lacrimation, macular edema, sclera hyperemia, and uveitis. Most of these reactions may have been the consequence of the surgical procedure.

6.2 Endogenous Anterior Uveitis

A total of 200 subjects participated in the clinical trials for endogenous anterior uveitis, of which 106 were exposed to difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion. The most common adverse reactions of those exposed to difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion occurring in 5% to 10% of subjects included blurred vision, eye irritation, eye pain, headache, increased IOP, iritis, limbal and conjunctival hyperemia, punctate keratitis, and uveitis. Adverse reactions occurring in 2% to 5% of subjects included anterior chamber flare, corneal edema, dry eye, iridocyclitis, photophobia, and reduced visual acuity.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy Teratogenic Effects

Pregnancy Category C

Difluprednate has been shown to be embryotoxic (decrease in embryonic body weight and a delay in embryonic ossification) and teratogenic (cleft palate and skeletal anomalies) when administered subcutaneously to rabbits during organogenesis at a dose of 1-10 mcg/kg/day. The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for these effects was 1 mcg/kg/day, and 10 mcg/kg/day was considered to be a teratogenic dose that was concurrently found in the toxic dose range for fetuses and pregnant females. Treatment of rats with 10 mcg/kg/day subcutaneously during organogenesis did not result in any reproductive toxicity, nor was it maternally toxic. At 100 mcg/kg/day after subcutaneous administration in rats, there was a decrease in fetal weights and delay in ossification, and effects on weight gain in the pregnant females. It is difficult to extrapolate these doses of difluprednate to maximum daily human doses of difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion, since difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion is administered topically with minimal systemic absorption, and difluprednate blood levels were not measured in the reproductive animal studies. However, since use of difluprednate during human pregnancy has not been evaluated and cannot rule out the possibility of harm, difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the embryo or fetus.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

It is not known whether topical ophthalmic administration of corticosteroids could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in breast milk. Systemically administered corticosteroids appear in human milk and could suppress growth, interfere with endogenous corticosteroid production, or cause other untoward effects. Caution should be exercised when difluprednate ophthalmic emulsion is administered to a nursing woman.

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