Dihydrocodeine Bitartrate, Acetaminophen and Caffeine

DIHYDROCODEINE BITARTRATE, ACETAMINOPHEN AND CAFFEINE — dihydrocodeine bitartrate, acetaminophen and caffeine tablet
Physicians Total Care, Inc.

DESCRIPTION

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and dihydrocodeine bitartrate tablets are supplied in tablet form for oral administration.

Each tablet contains:
Acetaminophenִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִ712.8 mg
Caffeineִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִ60 mg
Dihydrocodeine* bitartrateִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִִ32 mg
*Warning: May be habit forming

Acetaminophen (4′-hydroxyacetanilide), a slightly bitter, white, odorless, crystalline powder, is a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic.

It has the following structural formula:

eba84926-figure-01

C8 H9 NO2 M.W.=151.16

Caffeine (1,3,7-trimethylxanthine), a bitter, white crystalline powder, is a central nervous system stimulant. It has the following structural formula:

eba84926-figure-02

C8 H10 N4 O2 M.W=194.19

Dihydrocodeine Bitartrate (4,5a-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmDihydrocodeine Bitartrate (4,5a-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmDihydrocodeine Bitartrate (4,5a-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmDihydrocodeine Bitartrate (4,5a-epoxy-3-methoxy-17-methylmorphinan-6a-ol (+)-tartrate), an odorless, fine white powder is an opioid analgesic. It has the following structural formula:

eba84926-figure-03
(click image for full-size original)

C18 H23 NO3 C4 H6 O6 M.W.=451.47

In addition, each tablet also contains the following inactive ingredients: crospovidone, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone, pregelatinized starch, stearic acid.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY:

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and dihydrocodeine bitartrate tablets contain dihydrocodeine which is a semisynthetic narcotic analgesic related to codeine, with multiple actions qualitatively similar to those of codeine; the most prominent of these involve the central nervous system and organs with smooth muscle components. The principal action of therapeutic value is analgesia.

This combination product also contains acetaminophen, a non-opiate, non-salicylate analgesic and antipyretic. This combination product contains caffeine as an analgesic adjuvant. Caffeine is also a central nervous system and cardiovascular stimulant.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and dihydrocodeine bitartrate tablets are indicated for the relief of moderate to moderately severe pain.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

This combination product is contraindicated in persons with hypersensitivity to dihydrocodeine, codeine, acetaminophen, caffeine, or any of the inactive components listed above, or any situation where opioids are contraindicated including significant respiratory depression (in unmonitored settings or in the absence of resuscitative equipment), acute or severe bronchial asthma or hypercapnia, and paralytic ileus.

WARNINGS:

Usage in Ambulatory Patients:

Dihydrocodeine may impair the mental and/or physical abilities required for the performance of potentially hazardous tasks such as driving a car or operating machinery.

Respiratory Depression:

Respiratory depression is the most dangerous acute reaction produced by opioid agonist preparations, although it is rarely severe with usual doses. Opioids decrease the respiratory rate, tidal volume, minute ventilation, and sensitivity to carbon dioxide. Respiratory depression occurs most frequently in elderly or debilitated patients, usually after large initial doses in nontolerant patients, or when opioids are given in conjunction with other agents that depress respiration. This combination product should be used with caution in patients with significant chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or corpulmonale and in patients with a substantially decreased respiratory reserve, hypoxia, hypercapnia, or respiratory depression. In such patients, alternative non-opioid analgesics should be considered, and opioids should be admin- istered only under careful medical supervision at the lowest effective dose.

Head Injury:

This combination product should be used cautiously in the presence of head injury or increased intracranial pressure. The effects of opioids on pupillary response and consciousness may obscure neurologic signs of increases in intracranial pressure in patients with head injuries. The respiratory depressant effects including carbon dioxide retention and secondary elevation of cerebrospinal fluid pressure may be markedly exaggerated in the presence of head injury, intracranial lesions, or other causes of increased intracranial pressures.

Hypotensive Effect:

Dihydrocodeine, like all opioid analgesics, may cause hypotension in patients whose ability to maintain blood pressure has been compromised by a depleted blood volume or who receive concurrent therapy with drugs such as phenothiazines or other agents which compromise vasomotor tone.

Acetaminophen, caffeine, and dihydrocodeine bitartrate tablets may produce orthostatic hypotension in ambulatory patients. This combination product should be administered with caution to patients in circulatory shock, since vasodilation produced by the drug may further reduce cardiac output and blood pressure.

Drug Dependence

Dihydrocodeine can produce drug dependence of the codeine type and has the potential of being abused (See DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE).

PRECAUTIONS:

General:

Selection of patients for treatment with Acetaminophen, caffeine, and dihydrocodeine bitartrate tablets should be governed by the same principles that apply to the use of similar opioid/non-opioid fixed combination analgesics. As with any such opioid analgesic, the dosing regimen should be adjusted for each patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). This combination product should be used with caution in elderly or debilitated patients or those with any of the following conditions: acute alcoholism; adrenocortical insufficiency (e.g., Addison’s disease); asthma; central nervous system depression or coma; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; decreased respiratory reserve (including emphysema, severe obesity, cor pulmonale, or kyphoscoliosis); delirium tremens; head injury; hypotension; increased intracranial pressure; myxedema or hypothyroidism; prostatic hypertrophy or urethral stricture; and toxic psychosis. The benefits and risks of using opioids in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors and in those with a history of drug abuse should be carefully considered. The administration of an analgesic containing an opioid may obscure the diagnosis or clinical course in patients with acute abdominal conditions. This combination product may aggravate convulsions in patients with convulsive disorders and, like all opioids, may induce or aggravate seizures in some clinical settings. Acetaminophen is relatively non-toxic at therapeutic doses, but should be used with caution in patients with severe renal or hepatic disease. Care should be observed when using large doses of acetaminophen in malnourished patients or those with a history of chronic alcohol abuse because they may be more susceptible to hepatic damage similar to that observed with toxic overdosage.

Caffeine in high doses may produce central nervous system and cardiovascular stimulation and gastrointestinal irritation.

Drug-Drug Interactions:

Dihydrocodeine with Other Central Nervous System Depressants:

Patients receiving other opioid analgesics, sedatives or hypnotics, muscle relaxants, general anesthetics, centrally acting anti-emetics, phenothiazines or other tranquilizers, or alcohol concomitantly with this combination product may exhibit additive depressant effects on the central nervous system. When such combined therapy is contemplated, the dose of one or both agents should be reduced.

Dihydrocodeine with Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors:

Dihydrocodeine, like all opioid analgesics, interacts with monoamine oxidase inhibitors causing central nervous system excitation and hypertension.

Dihydrocodeine with Mixed Agonist/Antagonist Opioid Analgesics:

Agonist/antagonist analgesics (i.e., pentazocine, nalbuphine, butorphanol and buprenorphine) may reduce the analgesic effect of this combination product.

Acetaminophen-Drug Interactions:

Chronic and excessive consumption of alcohol may increase the hepatotoxic risk of acetaminophen. The potential for hepatotoxicity with acetaminophen also may be increased in patients receiving anticonvulsants that induce hepatic microsomal enzymes (including phenytoin, barbiturates, and carbamazepine) or isoniazide. Chronic ingestion of large doses of acetaminophen may slightly potentiate the effects of warfarin- and indandione- derivative anticoagulants. Severe hypothermia is possible in patients receiving acetaminophen concomitantly with phenothiazines.

Caffeine-Drug Interactions:

Caffeine may enhance the cardiac inotropic effects of beta-adrenergic stimulating agents. Coadministration of caffeine and disulfiram may lead to a substantial decrease in caffeine clearance. Caffeine may increase the metabolism of other drugs such as phenobarbital and aspirin. Caffeine accumulation may occur when products or foods containing caffeine are consumed concomitantly with quinolones such as ciprofloxacin.

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