Table 3 includes commonly occurring drug interactions affected by phenytoin. However, this list is not intended to be inclusive or comprehensive. Individual drug package inserts should be consulted. The addition or withdrawal of phenytoin during concomitant therapy with these agents may require adjustment of the dose of these agents to achieve optimal clinical outcome.
|Drugs whose efficacy is impaired by phenytoin|
|Azoles||Fluconazole, ketoconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, voriconazole|
|Antineoplastic agents||Irinotecan, paclitaxel, teniposide|
|Delavirdine||Phenytoin can substantially reduce the concentrations of delavirdine. This can lead to loss of virologic response and possible resistance [see Contraindications (4)].|
|Neuromuscular blocking agents||Cisatracurium, pancuronium, rocuronium and vecuronium: resistance to the neuromuscular blocking action of the nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents has occurred in patients chronically administered phenytoin. Whether or not phenytoin has the same effect on other non-depolarizing agents is unknown.Prevention or Management: Patients should be monitored closely for more rapid recovery from neuromuscular blockade than expected, and infusion rate requirements may be higher.|
|Warfarin||Increased and decreased PT/INR responses have been reported when phenytoin is coadministered with warfarin|
|Other||Corticosteroids, doxycycline, estrogens, furosemide, oral contraceptives, paroxetine, quinidine, rifampin, sertraline, theophylline, and vitamin D|
|Drugs whose level is decreased by phenytoin|
|Antiepileptic drugs *||Carbamazepine, felbamate, lamotrigine, topiramate, oxcarbazepine,|
|Antilipidemic agents||Atorvastatin, fluvastatin, simvastatin|
|Antiviral agents||Efavirenz, lopinavir/ritonavir, indinavir, nelfinavir, ritonavir, saquinavirFosamprenavir: phenytoin when given with fosamprenavir alone may decrease the concentration of amprenavir, the active metabolite. Phenytoin when given with the combination of fosamprenavir and ritonavir may increase the concentration of amprenavir|
|Calcium channel blockers||Nifedipine, nimodipine, nisoldipine, verapamil|
|Other||Albendazole (decreases active metabolite), chlorpropamide, clozapine, cyclosporine, digoxin, disopyramide, folic acid, methadone, mexiletine, praziquantel, quetiapine|
Literature reports suggest that patients who have received enteral feeding preparations and/or related nutritional supplements have lower than expected phenytoin serum levels. It is therefore suggested that phenytoin not be administered concomitantly with an enteral feeding preparation. More frequent serum phenytoin level monitoring may be necessary in these patients.
Care should be taken when using immunoanalytical methods to measure serum phenytoin concentrations.
Pregnancy Exposure Registry
There is a pregnancy exposure registry that monitors pregnancy outcomes in women exposed to antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), such as DILANTIN, during pregnancy. Physicians are advised to recommend that pregnant patients taking DILANTIN enroll in the North American Antiepileptic Drug (NAAED) Pregnancy Registry. This can be done by calling the tollfree number 1-888-233-2334, and must be done by patients themselves. Information on the registry can also be found at the website http://www.aedpregnancyregistry.org/
In humans, prenatal exposure to phenytoin may increase the risks for congenital malformations and other adverse developmental outcomes. Prenatal phenytoin exposure is associated with an increased incidence of major malformations, including orofacial clefts and cardiac defects. In addition, the fetal hydantoin syndrome, a pattern of abnormalities including dysmorphic skull and facial features, nail and digit hypoplasia, growth abnormalities (including microcephaly), and cognitive deficits has been reported among children born to epileptic women who took phenytoin alone or in combination with other antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy [see Data]. There have been several reported cases of malignancies, including neuroblastoma, in children whose mothers received phenytoin during pregnancy.
Administration of phenytoin to pregnant animals resulted in an increased incidence of fetal malformations and other manifestations of developmental toxicity (including embryofetal death, growth impairment, and behavioral abnormalities) in multiple species at clinically relevant doses [see Data].
In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and of miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively. The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown.
Disease-associated maternal risk
An increase in seizure frequency may occur during pregnancy because of altered phenytoin pharmacokinetics. Periodic measurement of serum phenytoin concentrations may be valuable in the management of pregnant women as a guide to appropriate adjustment of dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.3, 2.7)]. However, postpartum restoration of the original dosage will probably be indicated [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
A potentially life-threatening bleeding disorder related to decreased levels of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors may occur in newborns exposed to phenytoin in utero. This drug-induced condition can be prevented with vitamin K administration to the mother before delivery and to the neonate after birth.
Meta-analyses using data from published observational studies and registries have estimated an approximately 2.4-fold increased risk for any major malformation in children with prenatal phenytoin exposure compared to controls. An increased risk of heart defects, facial clefts, and digital hypoplasia has been reported. The fetal hydantoin syndrome is a pattern of congenital anomalies including craniofacial anomalies, nail and digital hypoplasia, prenatal-onset growth deficiency, and neurodevelopmental deficiencies.
Administration of phenytoin to pregnant rats, rabbits, and mice during organogenesis resulted in embryofetal death, fetal malformations, and decreased fetal growth. Malformations (including craniofacial, cardiovascular, neural, limb, and digit abnormalities) were observed in rats, rabbits, and mice at doses as low as 100, 75, and 12.5 mg/kg, respectively.
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