DILTIAZEM HYDROCHLORIDE- diltiazem hydrochloride capsule, extended release
RPK Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
Diltiazem hydrochloride is a calcium ion influx inhibitor (slow channel blocker or calcium antagonist). Chemically, diltiazem hydrochloride is 1,5-Benzothiazepin-4(5H)one, 3-(acetyloxy)-5-[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl]-2,3-dihydro-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) monohydrochloride, (+)-cis-. Its molecular formula is C22 H26 N2 O4 S HCl and its molecular weight is 450.99. Its structural formula is as follows:
Diltiazem hydrochloride is a white to off-white crystalline powder with a bitter taste. It is soluble in water, methanol and chloroform. DILT-XR [Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP (Once-a-day dosage)] complies with USP Drug Release Test #2.
DILT-XR [Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP (Once-a-day dosage)] contain multiple units of diltiazem HCI extended-release 60 mg, resulting in 120 mg, 180 mg, or 240 mg dosage strengths allowing for the controlled release of diltiazem HCI over a 24-hour period.
DILT-XR [Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP (Once-a-day dosage)] also contain Black SW-9008/SW9009, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C Red # No.28, D&C Yellow # No.10, FD&C Blue # No.1, FD&C Red # No.40, gelatin, hypromellose, magnesium stearate, red iron oxide, titanium dioxide and yellow iron oxide.
For oral administration.
The therapeutic benefits of diltiazem hydrochloride are believed to be related to its ability to inhibit the influx of calcium ions during membrane depolarization of cardiac and vascular smooth muscles.
Diltiazem HCl produces its antihypertensive effect primarily by relaxation of vascular smooth muscle with a resultant decrease in peripheral vascular resistance. The magnitude of blood pressure reduction is related to the degree of hypertension; thus hypertensive individuals experience an antihypertensive effect, whereas there is only a modest fall in blood pressure in normotensives.
Diltiazem HCl has been shown to produce increases in exercise tolerance, probably due to its ability to reduce myocardial oxygen demand. This is accomplished via reductions in heart rate and systemic blood pressure at submaximal and maximal work loads.
Diltiazem has been shown to be a potent dilator of coronary arteries, both epicardial and subendocardial. Spontaneous and ergonovine-induced coronary artery spasms are inhibited by diltiazem.
In animal models, diltiazem interferes with the slow inward (depolarizing) current in excitable tissue. It causes excitation-contraction uncoupling in various myocardial tissues without changes in the configuration of the action potential. Diltiazem produces relaxation of coronary vascular smooth muscle and dilation of both large and small coronary arteries at drug levels which cause little or no negative inotropic effect. The resultant increases in coronary blood flow (epicardial and subendocardial) occur in ischemic and nonischemic models and are accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in systemic blood pressure and decreases in peripheral resistance.
Like other calcium antagonists, diltiazem decreases sinoatrial and atrioventricular conduction in isolated tissues and has a negative inotropic effect in isolated preparations. In the intact animal, prolongation of the AH interval can be seen at higher doses.
In man, diltiazem prevents spontaneous and ergonovine-provoked coronary artery spasm. It causes a decrease in peripheral vascular resistance and a modest fall in blood pressure in normotensive individuals. In exercise tolerance studies in patients with ischemic heart disease, diltiazem reduces the double product (HR x SBP) for any given work load. Studies to date, primarily in patients with good ventricular function, have not revealed evidence of a negative inotropic effect. Cardiac output, ejection fraction and left ventricular end diastolic pressure have not been affected. Such data have no predictive value with respect to effects in patients with poor ventricular function. Increased heart failure has, however, been reported in occasional patients with pre-existing impairment of ventricular function. There are as yet few data on the interaction of diltiazem and beta-blockers in patients with poor ventricular function. Resting heart rate is usually slightly reduced by diltiazem.
Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP (Once-a-day dosage) produce antihypertensive effects both in the supine and standing positions. Postural hypotension is infrequently noted upon suddenly assuming an upright position. Diltiazem decreases vascular resistance, increases cardiac output (by increasing stroke volume), and produces a slight decrease or no change in heart rate. No reflex tachycardia is associated with the chronic antihypertensive effects.
During dynamic exercise, increases in diastolic pressure are inhibited while maximum achievable systolic pressure is usually reduced. Heart rate at maximum exercise does not change or is slightly reduced.
Diltiazem antagonizes the renal and peripheral effects of angiotensin II. No increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis has been observed. Chronic therapy with diltiazem produces no change or an increase in plasma catecholamines. Hypertensive animal models respond to diltiazem with reductions in blood pressure and increased urinary output and natriuresis without a change in the urinary sodium/potassium ratio. In man, transient natriuresis and kaliuresis have been reported, but only in high intravenous doses of 0.5 mg/kg of body weight.
Diltiazem-associated prolongation of the AH interval is not more pronounced in patients with first-degree heart block. In patients with sick sinus syndrome, diltiazem significantly prolongs sinus cycle length (up to 50% in some cases). Intravenous diltiazem in doses of 20 mg prolongs AH conduction time and AV node functional and effective refractory periods approximately 20%.
In two short-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, 303 hypertensive patients were treated with once-daily Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP (Once-a-day dosage) in doses of up to 540 mg. There were no instances of greater than first-degree atrioventricular block, and the maximum increase in the PR interval was 0.08 seconds. No patients were prematurely discontinued from the medication due to symptoms related to prolongation of the PR interval.
In one short-term, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP (Once-a-day dosage) 120, 240, 360, and 480 mg/day demonstrated a dose-related antihypertensive response among patients with mild to moderate hypertension. Statistically significant decreases in trough mean supine diastolic blood pressure were seen through 4 weeks of treatment: 120 mg/day (-5.1 mmHg); 240 mg/day (-6.9 mmHg); 360 mg/day (-6.9 mmHg); and, 480 mg/day (-10.6 mmHg). Statistically significant decreases in trough mean supine systolic blood pressure were also seen through 4 weeks of treatment: 120 mg/day (-2.6 mmHg); 240 mg/day (-6.5 mmHg); 360 mg/day (-4.8 mmHg); and 480 mg/day (-10.6 mmHg).
The proportion of evaluable patients exhibiting a therapeutic response (supine diastolic blood pressure <90 mmHg or decrease >10 mmHg) was greater as the dose increased: 31%, 42%, 48%, and 69% with the 120, 240, 360, and 480 mg/day diltiazem groups, respectively. Similar findings were observed for standing systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The trough (24 hours after a dose) antihypertensive effect of Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP (Once-a-day dosage) retained more than one-half of the response seen at peak (3 to 6 hours after administration).
Significant reductions of mean supine blood pressure (at trough) in patients with mild to moderate hypertension were also seen in a short-term, double-blind, dose-escalation, placebo-controlled study after 2 weeks of once daily Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP (Once-a-day dosage) 180 mg/day (diastolic: -6.1 mmHg; systolic: -4.7 mmHg) and again, 2 weeks after escalation to 360 mg/day (diastolic: -9.3 mmHg; systolic: -7.2 mmHg). However, a further increase in dose to 540 mg/day for 2 weeks provided only a minimal further increase in the antihypertensive effect (diastolic: -10.2 mmHg; systolic: -6.7 mmHg).
Diltiazem Hydrochloride Extended-Release Capsules, USP (Once-a-day dosage), given at 120 mg, 240 mg, and 480 mg/day, in a randomized, multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group, dose-ranging study, in 189 patients with chronic angina, demonstrated a dose-related increase in exercise time by Exercise Tolerance Test (ETT) and a reduction in rates of anginal attacks (based on individual patient diaries). The improvement in total exercise time (using the Bruce protocol), measured at trough exercise periods, for placebo, 120 mg, 240 mg, and 480 mg, was 20, 37, 49, and 56 seconds, respectively.
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