DIPHENHYDRAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE- diphenhydramine hydrochloride injection
Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Injection is a sterile, nonpyrogenic solution for intravenous or deep intramuscular use as an antihistaminic agent. Each mL contains diphenhydramine hydrochloride 50 mg and benzethonium chloride 100 mcg in Water for Injection. pH 4.0-6.5; sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid added, if needed, for pH adjustment.
The chemical name of diphenhydramine hydrochloride is 2-(Diphenylmethoxy)-N,N-dimethylethylamine hydrochloride. The structural formula is as follows:
C 17 H 21 NO • HCl MW 291.82
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride occurs as a white crystalline powder and is freely soluble in water and alcohol.
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride is an antihistamine with anticholinergic (drying) and sedative side effects. Antihistamines appear to compete with histamine for cell receptor sites on effector cells.
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride in the injectable form has a rapid onset of action. Diphenhydramine is widely distributed throughout the body, including the CNS. A portion of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine, while the rest is metabolized via the liver. Detailed information on the pharmacokinetics of Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Injection is not available.
Diphenhydramine Hydrochloride Injection is effective in adults and pediatric patients, other than premature infants and neonates, for the following conditions when the oral form is impractical:
For amelioration of allergic reactions to blood or plasma, in anaphylaxis as an adjunct to epinephrine and other standard measures after the acute symptoms have been controlled and for other uncomplicated allergic conditions of the immediate type when oral therapy is impossible or contraindicated.
For active treatment of motion sickness.
For use in parkinsonism, when oral therapy is impossible or contraindicated, as follows: parkinsonism in the elderly who are unable to tolerate more potent agents, mild cases of parkinsonism in other age groups and in other cases of parkinsonism in combination with centrally acting anticholinergic agents.
This drug should not be used in neonates or premature infants.
Because of the higher risk of antihistamines for infants generally, and for neonates and prematures in particular, antihistamine therapy is contraindicated in nursing mothers.
Because of the risk of local necrosis, this drug should not be used as a local anesthetic.
Hypersensitivity to diphenhydramine hydrochloride and other antihistamines of similar chemical structure.
Antihistamines should be used with considerable caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma, stenosing peptic ulcer, pyloroduodenal obstruction, symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy or bladder-neck obstruction.
Local necrosis has been associated with the use of subcutaneous or intradermal use of intravenous diphenhydramine.
In pediatric patients, especially, antihistamines in overdosage may cause hallucinations, convulsions or death.
As in adults, antihistamines may diminish mental alertness in pediatric patients. In the young pediatric patient, particularly, they may produce excitation.
Antihistamines are more likely to cause dizziness, sedation and hypotension in elderly patients.
Diphenhydramine hydrochloride has an atropine-like action and, therefore, should be used with caution in patients with a history of bronchial asthma, increased intraocular pressure, hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular disease or hypertension. Use with caution in patients with lower respiratory disease, including asthma.
Patients taking diphenhydramine hydrochloride should be advised that this drug may cause drowsiness and has an additive effect with alcohol.
Patients should be warned about engaging in activities requiring mental alertness, such as driving a car or operating appliances, machinery, etc.
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Diphenhydramine hydrochloride has additive effects with alcohol and other CNS depressants (hypnotics, sedatives, tranquilizers, etc.)
MAO inhibitors prolong and intensify the anticholinergic (drying) effects of antihistamines.
Long-term studies in animals to determine mutagenic and carcinogenic potential have not been performed.
Reproduction studies have been performed in rats and rabbits at doses up to 5 times the human dose and have revealed no evidence of impaired fertility or harm to the fetus due to diphenhydramine hydrochloride. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
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