Divalproex Sodium (Page 6 of 15)

5.16 Effect on Ketone and Thyroid Function Tests

Valproate is partially eliminated in the urine as a keto-metabolite which may lead to a false interpretation of the urine ketone test.

There have been reports of altered thyroid function tests associated with valproate. The clinical significance of these is unknown.

5.17 Effect on HIV and CMV Viruses Replication

There are in vitro studies that suggest valproate stimulates the replication of the HIV and CMV viruses under certain experimental conditions. The clinical consequence, if any, is not known. Additionally, the relevance of these in vitro findings is uncertain for patients receiving maximally suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Nevertheless, these data should be borne in mind when interpreting the results from regular monitoring of the viral load in HIV infected patients receiving valproate or when following CMV infected patients clinically.

5.18 Medication Residue in the Stool

There have been rare reports of medication residue in the stool. Some patients have had anatomic (including ileostomy or colostomy) or functional gastrointestinal disorders with shortened GI transit times. In some reports, medication residues have occurred in the context of diarrhea. It is recommended that plasma valproate levels be checked in patients who experience medication residue in the stool, and patients’ clinical condition should be monitored. If clinically indicated, alternative treatment may be considered.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

Information on pediatric adverse reactions is presented in section 8.

6.1 Mania

The incidence of treatment-emergent events has been ascertained based on combined data from two three week placebo-controlled clinical trials of divalproex sodium extended-release in the treatment of manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder.

Table 3 summarizes those adverse reactions reported for patients in these trials where the incidence rate in the divalproex sodium extended-release-treated group was greater than 5% and greater than the placebo incidence.

Table 3. Adverse Reactions Reported by > 5% of Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release-Treated Patients During Placebo-Controlled Trials of Acute Mania 1

Adverse Event

Divalproex Sodium Extended-Release (n=338) %

Placebo (n=263) %

Somnolence

26

14

Dyspepsia

23

11

Nausea

19

13

Vomiting

13

5

Diarrhea

12

8

Dizziness

12

7

Pain

11

10

Abdominal Pain

10

5

Accidental Injury

6

5

Asthenia

6

5

Pharyngitis

6

5

1 The following adverse reactions/event occurred at an equal or greater incidence for placebo than for divalproex sodium extended-release: headache

The following additional adverse reactions were reported by greater than 1% of the divalproex sodium extended-release-treated patients in controlled clinical trials:

Body as a Whole: Back Pain, Chills, Chills and Fever, Drug Level Increased, Flu Syndrome, Infection, Infection Fungal, Neck Rigidity.

Cardiovascular System: Arrhythmia, Hypertension, Hypotension, Postural Hypotension.

Digestive System: Constipation, Dry Mouth, Dysphagia, Fecal Incontinence, Flatulence, Gastroenteritis, Glossitis, Gum Hemorrhage, Mouth Ulceration.

Hemic and Lymphatic System: Anemia, Bleeding Time Increased, Ecchymosis, Leucopenia.

Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Hypoproteinemia, Peripheral Edema.

Musculoskeletal System: Arthrosis, Myalgia.

Nervous System: Abnormal Gait, Agitation, Catatonic Reaction, Dysarthria, Hallucinations, Hypertonia, Hypokinesia, Psychosis, Reflexes Increased, Sleep Disorder, Tardive Dyskinesia, Tremor.

Respiratory System: Hiccup, Rhinitis.

Skin and Appendages: Discoid Lupus Erythematosus, Erythema Nodosum, Furunculosis, Maculopapular Rash, Pruritus, Rash, Seborrhea, Sweating, Vesiculobullous Rash.

Special Senses: Conjunctivitis, Dry Eyes, Eye Disorder, Eye Pain, Photophobia, Taste Perversion.

Urogenital System: Cystitis, Urinary Tract Infection, Menstrual Disorder, Vaginitis.

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