Divalproex Sodium (Page 5 of 12)

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Because clinical studies are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical studies of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical studies of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

6.1 Mania

The incidence of treatment-emergent events has been ascertained based on combined data from two three week placebo-controlled clinical trials of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets in the treatment of manic episodes associated with bipolar disorder. The adverse reactions were usually mild or moderate in intensity, but sometimes were serious enough to interrupt treatment. In clinical trials, the rates of premature termination due to intolerance were not statistically different between placebo, divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets, and lithium carbonate. A total of 4%, 8% and 11% of patients discontinued therapy due to intolerance in the placebo, divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets, and lithium carbonate groups, respectively.Table 2 summarizes those adverse reactions reported for patients in these trials where the incidence rate in the divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets-treated group was greater than 5% and greater than the placebo incidence, or where the incidence in the divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets-treated group was statistically significantly greater than the placebo group. Vomiting was the only reaction that was reported by significantly (p ≤ 0.05) more patients receiving divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets compared to placebo.

Table 2. Adverse Reactions Reported by > 5% of Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets Treated Patients During Placebo-Controlled Trials of Acute Mania1
Adverse Reaction Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets(n = 89) Placebo(n = 97)
1. The following adverse reactions occurred at an equal or greater incidence for placebo than for divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets: back pain, headache, constipation, diarrhea, tremor, and pharyngitis.
Nausea 22% 15%
Somnolence 19% 12%
Dizziness 12% 4%
Vomiting 12% 3%
Accidental Injury 11% 5%
Asthenia 10% 7%
Abdominal pain 9% 8%
Dyspepsia 9% 8%
Rash 6% 3%

The following additional adverse reactions were reported by greater than 1% but not more than 5% of the 89 divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets-treated patients in controlled clinical trials:
Body as a Whole: Chest pain, chills, chills and fever, fever, neck pain, neck rigidity.
Cardiovascular System: Hypertension, hypotension, palpitations, postural hypotension, tachycardia, vasodilation.
Digestive System: Anorexia, fecal incontinence, flatulence, gastroenteritis, glossitis, periodontal abscess.
Hemic and Lymphatic System: Ecchymosis.
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders: Edema, peripheral edema.
Musculoskeletal System: Arthralgia, arthrosis, leg cramps, twitching.
Nervous System: Abnormal dreams, abnormal gait, agitation, ataxia, catatonic reaction, confusion, depression, diplopia, dysarthria, hallucinations, hypertonia, hypokinesia, insomnia, paresthesia, reflexes increased, tardive dyskinesia, thinking abnormalities, vertigo.
Respiratory System: Dyspnea, rhinitis.
Skin and Appendages: Alopecia, discoid lupus erythematosus, dry skin, furunculosis, maculopapular rash, seborrhea.
Special Senses: Amblyopia, conjunctivitis, deafness, dry eyes, ear pain, eye pain, tinnitus.
Urogenital System: Dysmenorrhea, dysuria, urinary incontinence.

6.2 Epilepsy

Based on a placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive therapy for treatment of complex partial seizures, divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets were generally well tolerated with most adverse reactions rated as mild to moderate in severity. Intolerance was the primary reason for discontinuation in the divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets-treated patients (6%), compared to 1% of placebo-treated patients.Table 3 lists treatment-emergent adverse reactions which were reported by ≥ 5% of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets-treated patients and for which the incidence was greater than in the placebo group, in the placebo-controlled trial of adjunctive therapy for treatment of complex partial seizures. Since patients were also treated with other antiepilepsy drugs, it is not possible, in most cases, to determine whether the following adverse reactions can be ascribed to divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets alone, or the combination of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets and other antiepilepsy drugs.

Table 3. Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 5% of Patients Treated with Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets During Placebo-Controlled Trial of Adjunctive Therapy for Complex Partial Seizures
Body System/Reaction Divalproex Sodium Delayed-Release Tablets (%)(n = 77) Placebo (%)(n = 70)
Body as a Whole
Headache 31 21
Asthenia 27 7
Fever 6 4
Gastrointestinal System
Nausea 48 14
Vomiting 27 7
Abdominal Pain 23 6
Diarrhea 13 6
Anorexia 12 0
Dyspepsia 8 4
Constipation 5 1
Nervous System
Somnolence 27 11
Tremor 25 6
Dizziness 25 13
Diplopia 16 9
Amblyopia/Blurred Vision 12 9
Ataxia 8 1
Nystagmus 8 1
Emotional Lability 6 4
Thinking Abnormal 6 0
Amnesia 5 1
Respiratory System
Flu Syndrome 12 9
Infection 12 6
Bronchitis 5 1
Rhinitis 5 4
Other
Alopecia 6 1
Weight Loss 6 0

Table 4 lists treatment-emergent adverse reactions which were reported by ≥ 5% of patients in the high dose valproate group, and for which the incidence was greater than in the low dose group, in a controlled trial of divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets monotherapy treatment of complex partial seizures. Since patients were being titrated off another antiepilepsy drug during the first portion of the trial, it is not possible, in many cases, to determine whether the following adverse reactions can be ascribed to divalproex sodium delayed-release tablets alone, or the combination of valproate and other antiepilepsy drugs.

Table 4. Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥ 5% of Patients in the High Dose Group in the Controlled Trial of Valproate Monotherapy for Complex Partial Seizures1
Body System/Reaction High Dose (%)(n = 131) Low Dose (%)(n = 134)
1. Headache was the only adverse reaction that occurred in ≥ 5% of patients in the high dose group and at an equal or greater incidence in the low dose group.
Body as a Whole
Asthenia 21 10
Digestive System
Nausea 34 26
Diarrhea 23 19
Vomiting 23 15
Abdominal Pain 12 9
Anorexia 11 4
Dyspepsia 11 10
Hemic/Lymphatic System
Thrombocytopenia 24 1
Ecchymosis 5 4
Metabolic/Nutritional
Weight Gain 9 4
Peripheral Edema 8 3
Nervous System
Tremor 57 19
Somnolence 30 18
Dizziness 18 13
Insomnia 15 9
Nervousness 11 7
Amnesia 7 4
Nystagmus 7 1
Depression 5 4
Respiratory System
Infection 20 13
Pharyngitis 8 2
Dyspnea 5 1
Skin and Appendages
Alopecia 24 13
Special Senses
Amblyopia/Blurred Vision 8 4
Tinnitus 7 1

The following additional adverse reactions were reported by greater than 1% but less than 5% of the 358 patients treated with valproate in the controlled trials of complex partial seizures:
Body as a Whole : Back pain, chest pain, malaise.
Cardiovascular System : Tachycardia, hypertension, palpitation.
Digestive System : Increased appetite, flatulence, hematemesis, eructation, pancreatitis, periodontal abscess.
Hemic and Lymphatic System: Petechia.
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders : SGOT increased, SGPT increased.
Musculoskeletal System : Myalgia, twitching, arthralgia, leg cramps, myasthenia.
Nervous System : Anxiety, confusion, abnormal gait, paresthesia, hypertonia, incoordination, abnormal dreams, personality disorder.
Respiratory System : Sinusitis, cough increased, pneumonia, epistaxis.
Skin and Appendages : Rash, pruritus, dry skin.
Special Senses : Taste perversion, abnormal vision, deafness, otitis media.
Urogenital System : Urinary incontinence, vaginitis, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, urinary frequency.

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