DOBUTAMINE- dobutamine hydrochloride injection, solution, concentrate
MUST BE DILUTED PRIOR TO
Dobutamine Injection, USP is a clear, practically colorless, sterile, nonpyrogenic solution of dobutamine hydrochloride for intravenous use only. Each milliliter contains 12.5 mg (41.5 μmol) dobutamine, as the hydrochloride and sodium metabisulfite, 0.2 mg added as antioxidant. May contain hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment. pH is 3.3 (2.5 to 5.5).
Dobutamine Hydrochloride, USP is chemically designated (±)-4-[2-[[3-(ρ-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylpropyl] amino]ethyl]-pyrocatechol hydrochloride.
It is a synthetic catecholamine.
Molecular Weight: 337.85
Molecular Formula: C18 H23 NO3 •HCl
Dobutamine hydrochloride is a direct-acting inotropic agent whose primary activity results from stimulation of the β receptors of the heart while producing comparatively mild chronotropic, hypertensive, arrhythmogenic, and vasodilative effects. It does not cause the release of endogenous norepinephrine, as does dopamine. In animal studies, dobutamine hydrochloride produces less increase in heart rate and less decrease in peripheral vascular resistance for a given inotropic effect than does isoproterenol.
In patients with depressed cardiac function, both dobutamine hydrochloride and isoproterenol increase the cardiac output to a similar degree. In the case of dobutamine hydrochloride, this increase is usually not accompanied by marked increases in heart rate (although tachycardia is occasionally observed), and the cardiac stroke volume is usually increased. In contrast, isoproterenol increases the cardiac index primarily by increasing the heart rate while stroke volume changes little or declines.
Facilitation of atrioventricular conduction has been observed in human electrophysiologic studies and in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Systemic vascular resistance is usually decreased with administration of dobutamine hydrochloride. Occasionally, minimum vasoconstriction has been observed.
Most clinical experience with dobutamine hydrochloride is short-term − not more than several hours in duration. In the limited number of patients who were studied for 24, 48, and 72 hours, a persistent increase in cardiac output occurred in some, whereas output returned toward baseline values in others.
The onset of action of dobutamine is within 1 to 2 minutes; however, as much as 10 minutes may be required to obtain the peak effect of a particular infusion rate.
The plasma half-life of dobutamine hydrochloride in humans is 2 minutes. The principal routes of metabolism are methylation of the catechol and conjugation. In human urine, the major excretion products are the conjugates of dobutamine and 3-O-methyl dobutamine. The 3-O-methyl derivative of dobutamine is inactive.
Alteration of synaptic concentrations of catecholamines with either reserpine or tricyclic antidepressants does not alter the actions of dobutamine in animals, which indicates that the actions of dobutamine hydrochloride are not dependent on presynaptic mechanisms.
Dobutamine Injection, USP is indicated when parenteral therapy is necessary for inotropic support in the short-term treatment of adults with cardiac decompensation due to depressed contractility resulting either from organic heart disease or from cardiac surgical procedures.
In patients who have atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response, a digitalis preparation should be used prior to institution of therapy with dobutamine hydrochloride.
Dobutamine hydrochloride is contraindicated in patients with idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis and in patients who have shown previous manifestations of hypersensitivity to Dobutamine Injection, USP solution.
1. Increase in Heart Rate or Blood Pressure
Dobutamine hydrochloride may cause a marked increase in heart rate or blood pressure, especially systolic pressure. Approximately 10% of patients in clinical studies have had rate increases of 30 beats/minute or more, and about 7.5% have had a 50 mm Hg or greater increase in systolic pressure. Usually, reduction of dosage promptly reverses these effects. Because dobutamine hydrochloride facilitates atrioventricular conduction, patients with atrial fibrillation are at risk of developing rapid ventricular response. Patients with pre-existing hypertension appear to face an increased risk of developing an exaggerated pressor response.
2. Ectopic Activity
Dobutamine hydrochloride may precipitate or exacerbate ventricular ectopic activity, but it rarely has caused ventricular tachycardia.
Reactions suggestive of hyper-sensitivity associated with administration of Dobutamine Injection, USP, including skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and bronchospasm, have been reported occasionally.
4. Dobutamine Injection, USP contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions, including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes, in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than in nonasthmatic people.
1. During the administration of Dobutamine Injection, USP, as with any adrenergic agent, ECG and blood pressure should be continuously monitored. In addition, pulmonary wedge pressure and cardiac output should be monitored whenever possible to aid in the safe and effective infusion of dobutamine hydrochloride.
2. Hypovolemia should be corrected with suitable volume expanders before treatment with dobutamine hydrochloride is instituted.
3. No improvement may be observed in the presence of marked mechanical obstruction, such as severe valvular aortic stenosis.
Usage Following Acute Myocardial Infarction − Clinical experience with dobutamine hydrochloride following myocardial infarction has been insufficient to establish the safety of the drug for this use. There is concern that any agent that increases contractile force and heart rate may increase the size of an infarction by intensifying ischemia, but it is not known whether dobutamine hydrochloride does so.
Laboratory Tests – Dobutamine, like other β2 -agonists, can produce a mild reduction in serum potassium concentration, rarely to hypokalemic levels. Accordingly, consideration should be given to monitoring serum potassium.
Drug Interactions – Animal studies indicate that dobutamine may be ineffective if the patient has recently received a β-blocking drug. In such a case, the peripheral vascular resistance may increase.
Preliminary studies indicate that the concomitant use of dobutamine and nitroprusside results in a higher cardiac output and, usually, a lower pulmonary wedge pressure than when either drug is used alone.
There was no evidence of drug interactions in clinical studies in which dobutamine was administered concurrently with other drugs, including digitalis preparations, furosemide, spironolactone, lidocaine, nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, morphine, atropine, heparin, protamine, potassium chloride, folic acid, and acetaminophen.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility – Studies to evaluate the carcinogenic or mutagenic potential of dobutamine hydrochloride, or its potential to affect fertility, have not been conducted.
Pregnancy – Teratogenic Effects − Reproduction studies performed in rats at doses up to the normal human dose (10 mcg/kg/min for 24 h, total daily dose of 14.4 mg/kg), and in rabbits at doses up to twice the normal human dose, have revealed no evidence of harm to the fetus due to dobutamine hydrochloride. There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.
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