DOCETAXEL (Page 13 of 20)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified from clinical trials and/or postmarketing surveillance. Because these reactions are reported from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Body as a whole: diffuse pain, chest pain, radiation recall phenomenon, injection site recall reaction (recurrence of skin reaction at a site of previous extravasation following administration of docetaxel at a different site) at the site of previous extravasation.

Cardiovascular: atrial fibrillation, deep vein thrombosis, ECG abnormalities, thrombophlebitis, pulmonary embolism, syncope, tachycardia, myocardial infarction. Ventricular arrhythmia, including ventricular tachycardia, in patients treated with docetaxel in combination regimens including doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil and/or cyclophosphamide may be associated with fatal outcome.

Cutaneous: cutaneous lupus erythematosus, bullous eruptions such as erythema multiforme and severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs) such as Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis and acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, scleroderma-like changes (usually preceded by peripheral lymphedema), severe palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia, and permanent alopecia.

Gastrointestinal: enterocolitis, including colitis, ischemic colitis, and neutropenic enterocolitis, which may be fatal. Abdominal pain, anorexia, constipation, duodenal ulcer, esophagitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gastrointestinal perforation, intestinal obstruction, ileus, and dehydration as a consequence of gastrointestinal events.

Hearing: ototoxicity, hearing disorders and/or hearing loss, including during use with other ototoxic drugs.

Hematologic: bleeding episodes, disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), often in association with sepsis or multiorgan failure.

Hepatic: hepatitis, sometimes fatal, primarily in patients with pre-existing liver disorders.

Hypersensitivity: anaphylactic shock with fatal outcome in patients who received premedication. Severe hypersensitivity reactions with fatal outcome with docetaxel in patients who previously experienced hypersensitivity reactions to paclitaxel.

Metabolism and nutrition disorders: electrolyte imbalance, including hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, and hypocalcemia. Tumor lysis syndrome, sometimes fatal.

Neurologic: confusion, seizures or transient loss of consciousness, sometimes appearing during the infusion of the drug.

Ophthalmologic: conjunctivitis, lacrimation or lacrimation with or without conjunctivitis, cystoid macular edema (CME). Excessive tearing which may be attributable to lacrimal duct obstruction. Transient visual disturbances (flashes, flashing lights, scotomata), typically occurring during drug infusion and reversible upon discontinuation of the infusion, in association with hypersensitivity reactions.

Respiratory: dyspnea, acute pulmonary edema, acute respiratory distress syndrome/pneumonitis, interstitial lung disease, interstitial pneumonia, respiratory failure, and pulmonary fibrosis, which may be fatal. Radiation pneumonitis in patients receiving concomitant radiotherapy.

Renal: renal insufficiency and renal failure, the majority of cases were associated with concomitant nephrotoxic drugs.

Second primary malignancies: second primary malignancies, including AML, MDS, NHL, and renal cancer [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

Musculoskeletal disorder: myositis.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

Docetaxel is a CYP3A4 substrate. In vitro studies have shown that the metabolism of docetaxel may be modified by the concomitant administration of compounds that induce, inhibit, or are metabolized by cytochrome P450 3A4.

In vivo studies showed that the exposure of docetaxel increased 2.2-fold when it was coadministered with ketoconazole, a potent inhibitor of CYP3A4. Protease inhibitors, particularly ritonavir, may increase the exposure of docetaxel. Concomitant use of Docetaxel Injection and drugs that inhibit CYP3A4 may increase exposure to docetaxel and should be avoided. In patients receiving treatment with Docetaxel Injection, close monitoring for toxicity and a Docetaxel Injection dose reduction could be considered if systemic administration of a potent CYP3A4 inhibitor cannot be avoided [see Dosage and Administration (2.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Based on findings in animal reproduction studies and its mechanism of action, Docetaxel Injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. Available data from case reports in the literature and pharmacovigilance with docetaxel use in pregnant women are not sufficient to inform the drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage, or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes. Docetaxel Injection contains alcohol which can interfere with neurobehavioral development [see Clinical Considerations]. In animal reproductive studies, administration of docetaxel to pregnant rats and rabbits during the period of organogenesis caused an increased incidence of embryo-fetal toxicities, including intrauterine mortality, at doses as low as 0.02 and 0.003 times the recommended human dose based on body surface area, respectively [see Data]. Advise pregnant women and females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus.

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, miscarriage, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2% to 4% and 15% to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Docetaxel Injection contains alcohol [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)]. Published studies have demonstrated that alcohol is associated with fetal harm including central nervous system abnormalities, behavioral disorders, and impaired intellectual development.

DataAnimal data

Intravenous administration of ≥0.3 and 0.03 mg/kg/day docetaxel to pregnant rats and rabbits, respectively, during the period of organogenesis caused an increased incidence of intrauterine mortality, resorptions, reduced fetal weights, and fetal ossification delays. Maternal toxicity was also observed at these doses, which were approximately 0.02 and 0.003 times the daily maximum recommended human dose based on body surface area, respectively.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There is no information regarding the presence of docetaxel in human milk, or on its effects on milk production or the breastfed child. No lactation studies in animals have been conducted. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in a breastfed child, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with Docetaxel Injection and for 1 week after the last dose.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Pregnancy Testing

Verify pregnancy status in females of reproductive potential prior to initiating Docetaxel Injection.

Contraception Females

Docetaxel Injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 6 months after the last dose of Docetaxel Injection.

Males

Based on genetic toxicity findings, advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 3 months after the last dose of Docetaxel Injection.

Infertility

Based on findings in animal studies, Docetaxel Injection may impair fertility in males of reproductive potential [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].

8.4 Pediatric Use

The alcohol content of Docetaxel Injection should be taken into account when given to pediatric patients [ see Warnings and Precautions (5.13) ].

The efficacy of Docetaxel Injection in pediatric patients as monotherapy or in combination has not been established. The overall safety profile of Docetaxel Injection in pediatric patients receiving monotherapy or TCF was consistent with the known safety profile in adults.

Docetaxel Injection has been studied in a total of 289 pediatric patients: 239 in 2 trials with monotherapy and 50 in combination treatment with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TCF).

Docetaxel Injection Monotherapy

Docetaxel Injection monotherapy was evaluated in a dose-finding phase 1 trial in 61 pediatric patients (median age 12.5 years, range 1-22 years) with a variety of refractory solid tumors. The recommended dose was 125 mg/m 2 as a 1-hour intravenous infusion every 21 days. The primary dose limiting toxicity was neutropenia.

The recommended dose for Docetaxel Injection monotherapy was evaluated in a phase 2 single-arm trial in 178 pediatric patients (median age 12 years, range 1-26 years) with a variety of recurrent/refractory solid tumors. Efficacy was not established with tumor response rates ranging from one complete response (CR) (0.6%) in a patient with undifferentiated sarcoma to four partial responses (2.2%) seen in one patient each with Ewing Sarcoma, neuroblastoma, osteosarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma.

Docetaxel Injection in Combination

Docetaxel Injection was studied in combination with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TCF) versus cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (CF) for the induction treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) in pediatric patients prior to chemoradiation consolidation. Seventy-five patients (median age 16 years, range 9 to 21 years) were randomized (2:1) to Docetaxel Injection (75 mg/m 2) in combination with cisplatin (75 mg/m 2) and 5-fluorouracil (750 mg/m 2) (TCF) or to cisplatin (80 mg/m 2) and 5-fluorouracil (1000 mg/m 2 /day) (CF). The primary endpoint was the CR rate following induction treatment of NPC. One patient out of 50 in the TCF group (2%) had a complete response while none of the 25 patients in the CF group had a complete response.

Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacokinetic parameters for docetaxel were determined in 2 pediatric solid tumor trials. Following docetaxel administration at 55 mg/m 2 to 235 mg/m 2 in a 1-hour intravenous infusion every 3 weeks in 25 patients aged 1 to 20 years (median 11 years), docetaxel clearance was 17.3±10.9 L/h/m 2.

Docetaxel was administered in combination with cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (TCF), at dose levels of 75 mg/m 2 in a 1-hour intravenous infusion day 1 in 28 patients aged 10 to 21 years (median 16 years, 17 patients were older than 16). Docetaxel clearance was 17.9±8.75 L/h/m 2 , corresponding to an AUC of 4.20±2.57 μg∙h/mL.

In summary, the body surface area adjusted clearance of docetaxel monotherapy and TCF combination in children were comparable to those in adults [ see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

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