Dofetilide (Page 5 of 10)

PRECAUTIONS

Renal Impairment

The overall systemic clearance of dofetilide is decreased and plasma concentration increased with decreasing creatinine clearance. The dose of dofetilide must be adjusted based on creatinine clearance (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Patients undergoing dialysis were not included in clinical studies, and appropriate dosing recommendations for these patients are unknown. There is no information about the effectiveness of hemodialysis in removing dofetilide from plasma.

Hepatic Impairment

After adjustment for creatinine clearance, no additional dose adjustment is required for patients with mild or moderate hepatic impairment. Patients with severe hepatic impairment have not been studied. Dofetilide should be used with particular caution in these patients.

Cardiac Conduction Disturbances

Animal and human studies have not shown any adverse effects of dofetilide on conduction velocity. No effect on AV nodal conduction following dofetilide treatment was noted in normal volunteers and in patients with 1 st degree heart block. Patients with sick sinus syndrome or with 2 nd or 3 rd degree heart block were not included in the Phase 3 clinical trials unless a functioning pacemaker was present. Dofetilide has been used safely in conjunction with pacemakers (53 patients in DIAMOND studies, 136 in trials in patients with ventricular and supraventricular arrhythmias).

Information for Patients

Please refer patient to the Medication Guide.

Prior to initiation of dofetilide therapy, the patient should be advised to read the Medication Guide and reread it each time therapy is renewed in case the patient’s status has changed. The patient should be fully instructed on the need for compliance with the recommended dosing of dofetilide capsules and the potential for drug interactions, and the need for periodic monitoring of QTc and renal function to minimize the risk of serious abnormal rhythms.

Medications and Supplements:

Assessment of patients’ medication history should include all over-the-counter, prescription, and herbal/natural preparations with emphasis on preparations that may affect the pharmacokinetics of dofetilide such as cimetidine (see CONTRAINDICATIONS), trimethoprim alone or in combination with sulfamethoxazole (see WARNINGS, CONTRAINDICATIONS), prochlorperazine (see WARNINGS, CONTRAINDICATIONS), megestrol (see WARNINGS, CONTRAINDICATIONS), ketoconazole (see WARNINGS, CONTRAINDICATIONS), dolutegravir (see CONTRAINDICATIONS), hydrochlorothiazide (alone or in combinations such as with triamterene) (see CONTRAINDICATIONS), other cardiovascular drugs (especially verapamil – see CONTRAINDICATIONS), phenothiazines, and tricyclic antidepressants (see WARNINGS). If a patient is taking dofetilide and requires anti-ulcer therapy, omeprazole, ranitidine, or antacids (aluminum and magnesium hydroxides) should be used as alternatives to cimetidine, as these agents have no effect on the pharmacokinetics of dofetilide. Patients should be instructed to notify their health care providers of any change in over-the-counter, prescription, or supplement use. If a patient is hospitalized or is prescribed a new medication for any condition, the patient must inform the health care provider of ongoing dofetilide therapy. Patients should also check with their health care provider and/or pharmacist prior to taking a new over-the-counter preparation.

Electrolyte Imbalance:

If patients experience symptoms that may be associated with altered electrolyte balance, such as excessive or prolonged diarrhea, sweating, or vomiting or loss of appetite or thirst, these conditions should immediately be reported to their health care provider.

Dosing Schedule:

Patients should be instructed NOT to double the next dose if a dose is missed. The next dose should be taken at the usual time.

Drug/Laboratory Test Interactions

None known.

Drug-Drug Interactions

Cimetidine:

(see WARNINGS, CONTRAINDICATIONS) Concomitant use of cimetidine is contraindicated. Cimetidine at 400 mg BID (the usual prescription dose) co-administered with dofetilide (500 mcg BID) for 7 days has been shown to increase dofetilide plasma levels by 58%. Cimetidine at doses of 100 mg BID (OTC dose) resulted in a 13% increase in dofetilide plasma levels (500 mcg single dose). No studies have been conducted at intermediate doses of cimetidine. If a patient requires dofetilide and anti-ulcer therapy, it is suggested that omeprazole, ranitidine, or antacids (aluminum and magnesium hydroxides) be used as alternatives to cimetidine, as these agents have no effect on the pharmacokinetic profile of dofetilide.

Verapamil:

(see CONTRAINDICATIONS) Concomitant use of verapamil is contraindicated. Co-administration of dofetilide with verapamil resulted in increases in dofetilide peak plasma levels of 42%, although overall exposure to dofetilide was not significantly increased. In an analysis of the supraventricular arrhythmia and DIAMOND patient populations, the concomitant administration of verapamil with dofetilide was associated with a higher occurrence of Torsade de Pointes.

Ketoconazole:

(see WARNINGS, CONTRAINDICATIONS) Concomitant use of ketoconazole is contraindicated. Ketoconazole at 400 mg daily (the maximum approved prescription dose) co-administered with dofetilide (500 mcg BID) for 7 days has been shown to increase dofetilide C max by 53% in males and 97% in females, and AUC by 41% in males and 69% in females.

Trimethoprim Alone or in Combination with Sulfamethoxazole:

(see WARNINGS, CONTRAINDICATIONS) Concomitant use of trimethoprim alone or in combination with sulfamethoxazole is contraindicated. Trimethoprim 160 mg in combination with 800 mg sulfamethoxazole co-administered BID with dofetilide (500 mcg BID) for 4 days has been shown to increase dofetilide AUC by 103% and C max by 93%.

Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) Alone or in Combination with Triamterene:

(see CONTRAINDICATIONS) Concomitant use of HCTZ alone or in combination with triamterene is contraindicated. HCTZ 50 mg QD or HCTZ/triamterene 50/100 mg QD was co-administered with dofetilide (500 mcg BID) for 5 days (following 2 days of diuretic use at half dose). In patients receiving HCTZ alone, dofetilide AUC increased by 27% and C max by 21%. However, the pharmacodynamic effect increased by 197% (QTc increase over time) and by 95% (maximum QTc increase). In patients receiving HCTZ in combination with triamterene, dofetilide AUC increased by 30% and C max by 16%. However, the pharmacodynamic effect increased by 190% (QTc increase over time) and by 84% (maximum QTc increase). The pharmacodynamic effects can be explained by a combination of the increase in dofetilide exposure and the reductions in serum potassium. In the DIAMOND trials, 1252 patients were treated with dofetilide and diuretics concomitantly, of whom 493 died compared to 508 deaths among the 1248 patients receiving placebo and diuretics. Of the 229 patients who had potassium depleting diuretics added to their concomitant medications in the DIAMOND trials, the patients on dofetilide had a non-significantly reduced relative risk for death of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.376, 1.230).

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