Dofetilide

DOFETILIDE- dofetilide capsule
Northstar Rx LLC

To minimize the risk of induced arrhythmia, patients initiated or re-initiated on dofetilide capsules should be placed for a minimum of 3 days in a facility that can provide calculations of creatinine clearance, continuous electrocardiographic monitoring, and cardiac resuscitation. For detailed instructions regarding dose selection, see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.

DESCRIPTION

Dofetilide capsules are an antiarrhythmic drug with Class III (cardiac action potential duration prolonging) properties. Its empirical formula is C19 H27 N3 O5 S2 and it has a molecular weight of 441.6. The structural formula is

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

The chemical name for dofetilide is:N -[4-[2-[methyl[2-[4-[(methylsulfonyl)amino]phenoxy]ethyl]amino]ethyl]phenyl]methanesulfonamide.

Dofetilide is a white to off-white powder. It is very slightly soluble in water and propan-2-ol and is soluble in 0.1M aqueous sodium hydroxide, acetone, and aqueous 0.1M hydrochloric acid.

Dofetilide capsules contain the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, corn starch, colloidal silicon dioxide and magnesium stearate. The capsule shells contain gelatin, titanium dioxide, red iron oxide, yellow iron oxide, and black ink. The imprint ink contains iron oxide black, shellac, ethanol, n-butyl alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, propylene glycol, and ammonium hydroxide. Dofetilide capsules are supplied for oral administration in three dosage strengths: 125 mcg (0.125 mg) dark caramel and white capsules, 250 mcg (0.25 mg) light orange capsules, and 500 mcg (0.5 mg) light orange and white capsules.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Mechanism of Action

Dofetilide shows Vaughan Williams Class III antiarrhythmic activity. The mechanism of action is blockade of the cardiac ion channel carrying the rapid component of the delayed rectifier potassium current, IKr . At concentrations covering several orders of magnitude, dofetilide blocks only IKr with no relevant block of the other repolarizing potassium currents (e.g., IKs , IK1 ). At clinically relevant concentrations, dofetilide has no effect on sodium channels (associated with Class I effect), adrenergic alpha-receptors, or adrenergic beta-receptors.

Electrophysiology

Dofetilide increases the monophasic action potential duration in a predictable, concentration-dependent manner, primarily due to delayed repolarization. This effect, and the related increase in effective refractory period, is observed in the atria and ventricles in both resting and paced electrophysiology studies. The increase in QT interval observed on the surface ECG is a result of prolongation of both effective and functional refractory periods in the His-Purkinje system and the ventricles.

Dofetilide did not influence cardiac conduction velocity and sinus node function in a variety of studies in patients with or without structural heart disease. This is consistent with a lack of effect of dofetilide on the PR interval and QRS width in patients with pre-existing heart block and/or sick sinus syndrome.

In patients, dofetilide terminates induced re-entrant tachyarrhythmias (e.g., atrial fibrillation/flutter and ventricular tachycardia) and prevents their re-induction. Dofetilide does not increase the electrical energy required to convert electrically induced ventricular fibrillation, and it significantly reduces the defibrillation threshold in patients with ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation undergoing implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator device.

Hemodynamic Effects

In hemodynamic studies, dofetilide had no effect on cardiac output, cardiac index, stroke volume index, or systemic vascular resistance in patients with ventricular tachycardia, mild to moderate congestive heart failure or angina, and either normal or low left ventricular ejection fraction. There was no evidence of a negative inotropic effect related to dofetilide therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation. There was no increase in heart failure in patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction (see CLINICAL STUDIES, Safety in Patients with Structural Heart Disease, DIAMOND Studies). In the overall clinical program, dofetilide did not affect blood pressure. Heart rate was decreased by 4-6 bpm in studies in patients.

Pharmacokinetics, General

Absorption and Distribution

The oral bioavailability of dofetilide is >90%, with maximal plasma concentrations occurring at about 2-3 hours in the fasted state. Oral bioavailability is unaffected by food or antacid. The terminal half-life of dofetilide is approximately 10 hours; steady state plasma concentrations are attained within 2-3 days, with an accumulation index of 1.5 to 2.0. Plasma concentrations are dose proportional. Plasma protein binding of dofetilide is 60-70%, is independent of plasma concentration, and is unaffected by renal impairment. Volume of distribution is 3 L/kg.

Metabolism and Excretion

Approximately 80% of a single dose of dofetilide is excreted in urine, of which approximately 80% is excreted as unchanged dofetilide with the remaining 20% consisting of inactive or minimally active metabolites. Renal elimination involves both glomerular filtration and active tubular secretion (via the cation transport system, a process that can be inhibited by cimetidine, trimethoprim, prochlorperazine, megestrol, ketoconazole and dolutegravir). In vitro studies with human liver microsomes show that dofetilide can be metabolized by CYP3A4, but it has a low affinity for this isoenzyme. Metabolites are formed by N-dealkylation and N-oxidation. There are no quantifiable metabolites circulating in plasma, but 5 metabolites have been identified in urine.

Pharmacokinetics in Special Populations

Renal Impairment

In volunteers with varying degrees of renal impairment and patients with arrhythmias, the clearance of dofetilide decreases with decreasing creatinine clearance. As a result, and as seen in clinical studies, the half-life of dofetilide is longer in patients with lower creatinine clearances. Because increase in QT interval and the risk of ventricular arrhythmias are directly related to plasma concentrations of dofetilide, dosage adjustment based on calculated creatinine clearance is critically important (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). Patients with severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance <20 mL/min) were not included in clinical or pharmacokinetic studies (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Hepatic Impairment

There was no clinically significant alteration in the pharmacokinetics of dofetilide in volunteers with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A and B) compared to age- and weight-matched healthy volunteers. Patients with severe hepatic impairment were not studied.

Patients with Heart Disease

Population pharmacokinetic analyses indicate that the plasma concentration of dofetilide in patients with supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias, ischemic heart disease, or congestive heart failure are similar to those of healthy volunteers, after adjusting for renal function.

Elderly

After correction for renal function, clearance of dofetilide is not related to age.

Women

A population pharmacokinetic analysis showed that women have approximately 12-18% lower dofetilide oral clearances than men (14-22% greater plasma dofetilide levels), after correction for weight and creatinine clearance. In females, as in males, renal function was the single most important factor influencing dofetilide clearance. In normal female volunteers, hormone replacement therapy (a combination of conjugated estrogens and medroxyprogesterone) did not increase dofetilide exposure.

Drug-Drug Interactions

(see PRECAUTIONS)

Dose-Response and Concentration Response for Increase in QT Interval

Increase in QT interval is directly related to dofetilide dose and plasma concentration. Figure 1 shows that the relationship in normal volunteers between dofetilide plasma concentrations and change in QTc is linear, with a positive slope of approximately 15-25 msec/(ng/mL) after the first dose and approximately 10-15 msec/(ng/mL) at Day 23 (reflecting a steady state of dosing). A linear relationship between mean QTc increase and dofetilide dose was also seen in patients with renal impairment, in patients with ischemic heart disease, and in patients with supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias.

Figure 1: Mean QTc-Concentration Relationship in Young Volunteers Over 24 Days
Figure 1
(click image for full-size original)

Note: The range of dofetilide plasma concentrations achieved with the 500 mcg BID dose adjusted for creatinine clearance is 1-3.5 ng/mL.

The relationship between dose, efficacy, and the increase in QTc from baseline at steady state for the two randomized, placebo-controlled studies (described further below) is shown in Figure 2. The studies examined the effectiveness of dofetilide capsules in conversion to sinus rhythm and maintenance of normal sinus rhythm after conversion in patients with atrial fibrillation/flutter of >1 week duration. As shown, both the probability of a patient’s remaining in sinus rhythm at six months and the change in QTc from baseline at steady state of dosing increased in an approximately linear fashion with increasing dose of dofetilide capsules. Note that in these studies, doses were modified by results of creatinine clearance measurement and in-hospital QTc prolongation.

Number of patients evaluated for maintenance of NSR: 503 Dofetilide Capsules, 174 placebo. Number of patients evaluated for QTc change: 478 Dofetilide Capsules, 167 placebo.
Figure 2: Relationship Between Dofetilide Capsules Dose, QTc Increase and Maintenance of NSR

Figure 2
(click image for full-size original)

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2020. All Rights Reserved.