The effectiveness of donepezil hydrochloride in the treatment of patients with severe Alzheimer’s Disease was established in studies employing dose of 10 mg/day.
Studies of 10 mg/day
Swedish 6 Month Study
The effectiveness of donepezil hydrochloride as a treatment for severe Alzheimer’s disease is demonstrated by the results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical study conducted in Sweden (6 month study) in patients with probable or possible Alzheimer’s disease diagnosed by NINCDS-ADRDA and DSM-IV criteria, MMSE: range of 1 to 10. Two hundred and forty eight (248) patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease were randomized to donepezil hydrochloride or placebo. For patients randomized to donepezil hydrochloride, treatment was initiated at 5 mg once daily for 28 days and then increased to 10 mg once daily. At the end of the 6 month treatment period, 90.5% of the donepezil hydrochloride treated patients were receiving the 10 mg/day dose. The mean age of patients was 84.9 years, with a range of 59 to 99. Approximately 77 % of patients were women, and 23 % were men. Almost all patients were Caucasian. Probable AD was diagnosed in the majority of the patients (83.6% of donepezil hydrochloride treated patients and 84.2% of placebo treated patients).
Study Outcome Measures: The effectiveness of treatment with donepezil hydrochloride was determined using a dual outcome assessment strategy that evaluated cognitive function using an instrument designed for more impaired patients and overall function through caregiver-rated assessment. This study showed that patients on donepezil hydrochloride experienced significant improvement on both measures compared to placebo.
The ability of donepezil hydrochloride to improve cognitive performance was assessed with the Severe Impairment Battery (SIB). The SIB, a multi-item instrument, has been validated for the evaluation of cognitive function in patients with moderate to severe dementia. The SIB evaluates selective aspects of cognitive performance, including elements of memory, language, orientation, attention, praxis, visuospatial ability, construction, and social interaction. The SIB scoring range is from 0 to 100, with lower scores indicating greater cognitive impairment.
Daily function was assessed using the Modified Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory for Severe Alzheimer’s Disease (ADCS-ADL-severe). The ADCS-ADL-severe is derived from the Alzheimer’s Disease Cooperative Study Activities of Daily Living Inventory, which is a comprehensive battery of ADL questions used to measure the functional capabilities of patients. Each ADL item is rated from the highest level of independent performance to complete loss. The ADCS-ADL-severe is a subset of 19 items, including ratings of the patient’s ability to eat, dress, bathe, use the telephone, get around (or travel), and perform other activities of daily living; it has been validated for the assessment of patients with moderate to severe dementia. The ADCS-ADL-severe has a scoring range of 0 to 54, with the lower scores indicating greater functional impairment. The investigator performs the inventory by interviewing a caregiver, in this study a nurse staff member, familiar with the functioning of the patient.
Effects on the SIB:
Figure 7 shows the time course for the change from baseline in SIB score for the two treatment groups over the 6 months of the study. At 6 months of treatment, the mean difference in the SIB change scores for donepezil hydrochloride treated patients compared to patients on placebo was 5.9 points. Donepezil Hydrochloride treatment was statistically significantly superior to placebo.
Figure 7. Time Course of the Change from Baseline in SIB Score for
Patients Completing 6 months of Treatment.
Figure 8 illustrates the cumulative percentages of patients from each of the two treatment groups who attained the measure of improvement in SIB score shown on the X-axis. While patients assigned both to donepezil hydrochloride and to placebo have a wide range of responses, the curves show that the donepezil hydrochloride group is more likely to show a greater improvement in cognitive performance.
Figure 8. Cumulative Percentage of Patients Completing 6 Months of Double-blind Treatment with Particular Changes from Baseline in SIB Scores.
Figure 9. Time Course of the Change from Baseline in ADCS-ADL-Severe Score for Patients Completing 6 Months of Treatment.
Effects on the ADCS-ADL-severe: Figure 9 illustrates the time course for the change from baseline in ADCS-ADL-severe scores for patients in the two treatment groups over the 6 months of the study. After 6 months of treatment, the mean difference in the ADCS-ADL-severe change scores for donepezil hydrochloride treated patients compared to patients on placebo was 1.8 points. Donepezil hydrochloride treatment was statistically significantly superior to placebo.
Figure 10 shows the cumulative percentages of patients from each treatment group with specified changes from baseline ADCS-ADL-severe scores. While both patients assigned to donepezil hydrochloride and placebo have a wide range of responses, the curves demonstrate that the donepezil hydrochloride group is more likely to show a smaller decline or an improvement.
Figure 10. Cumulative Percentage of Patients Completing 6 Months of Double-blind
Treatment with Particular Changes from Baseline in ADCS-ADL-Severe Scores.
Japanese 24-Week Study
In a study of 24 weeks duration conducted in Japan, 325 patients with severe Alzheimer’s disease were randomized to doses of 5 mg/day or 10 mg/day of donepezil, administered once daily, or placebo. Patients randomized to treatment with donepezil were to achieve their assigned doses by titration, beginning at 3 mg/day, and extending over a maximum of 6 weeks. Two hundred and forty eight (248) patients completed the study, with similar proportions of patients completing the study in each treatment group. The primary efficacy measures for this study were the SIB and CIBIC-plus.
At 24 weeks of treatment, statistically significant treatment differences were observed between the 10 mg/day dose of donepezil and placebo on both the SIB and CIBIC-plus. The 5 mg/day dose of donepezil showed a statistically significant superiority to placebo on the SIB, but not on the CIBIC-plus.
Donepezil hydrochloride tablets USP, 5 mg are white round biconvex, film coated tablets debossed with ‘I’ on one side and ’24’ on the other side. They are supplied as follows
Bottles of 30 NDC 68554-5037-0
Bottles of 90 NDC 68554-5037-1
Bottles of 100 NDC 68554-5037-2
Bottles of 500 NDC 68554-5037-3
Unit Dose Blister Package 100 (10×10) NDC 68554-5037-4
Donepezil hydrochloride tablets USP, 10 mg are yellow round biconvex, film coated tablets debossed with ‘I’ on one side and ‘21’ on the other side. They are supplied as follows
Bottles of 30 NDC 68554-5038-0
Bottles of 90 NDC 68554-5038-1
Bottles of 100 NDC 68554-5038-2
Bottles of 500 NDC 68554-5038-3
Unit Dose Blister Package 100 (10×10) NDC 68554-5038-4
Storage: Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
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