DORYX (Page 2 of 4)

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of DORYX and other antibacterial drugs, DORYX should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Treatment

Doxycycline is indicated for the treatment of the following infections:

Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.
Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydia psittaci.
Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis , although the infectious agent is not always eliminated as judged by immunofluorescence.
Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.
Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis.

Doxycycline is also indicated for the treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms:

Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.
Plague due to Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pesti s).
Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis (formerly Pasteurella tularensi s).
Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae (formerly Vibrio comma).
Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus (formerly Vibrio fetu s).
Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin).
Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis.
Granuloma inguinale caused by Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.

Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to doxycycline, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms, when bacteriological testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

Escherichia coli
Enterobacter aerogenes (
formerly Aerobacter aerogenes)
Shigella
species
Acinetobacter
species (formerly Mima species and Herellea species)
Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilis influenzae
Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella
species

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriological testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (formerly Diplococcus pneumonia)

Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis , including inhalation anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.

When penicillin is contraindicated, doxycycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of infections due to:

Uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae
Syphillis caused by Treponema pallidum
Yaws caused by Treponema pertenue
Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes
Vincent’s infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme
Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelli
Infections caused by Clostridium species

In acute intestinal amebiasis doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.

In severe acne doxycycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.

Prophylaxis:

Doxycycline is indicated for the prophylaxis of malaria due to Plasmodium falciparum in short-term travelers (<4 months) to areas with chloroquine and/or pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine resistant strains. See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section and Information for Patients subsections of the PRECAUTIONS section.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

The drug is contraindicated in persons who have shown hypersensitivity to any of the tetracyclines.

WARNINGS

THE USE OF DRUGS OF THE TETRACYCLINE CLASS DURING TOOTH DEVELOPMENT (LAST HALF OF PREGNANCY, INFANCY AND CHILDHOOD TO THE AGE OF 8 YEARS) MAY CAUSE PERMANENT DISCOLORATION OF THE TEETH (YELLOW-GRAY-BROWN). This adverse reaction is more common during long-term use of the drugs but it has been observed following repeated short-term courses. Enamel hypoplasia has also been reported. TETRACYCLINE DRUGS, THEREFORE, SHOULD NOT BE USED IN THIS AGE GROUP, EXCEPT FOR ANTHRAX, INCLUDING INHALATION ANTHRAX (POST-EXPOSURE), UNLESS OTHER DRUGS ARE NOT LIKELY TO BE EFFECTIVE OR ARE CONTRAINDICATED.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including DORYX Capsules, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

All tetracyclines form a stable calcium complex in any bone-forming tissue. A decrease in fibula growth rate has been observed in prematures given oral tetracycline in doses of 25 mg/kg every six hours. This reaction was shown to be reversible when the drug was discontinued.

Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta, are found in fetal tissues and can have toxic effects on the developing fetus (often related to retardation of skeleton development). Evidence of embryotoxicity has been noted in animals treated early in pregnancy. If any tetracycline is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking these drugs, the patient should be apprised of potential hazard to the fetus.

The anti-anabolic action of the tetracyclines may cause an increase in BUN. Studies to date indicate that this does not occur with the use of doxycycline in patients with impaired renal function.

Photosensitivity manifested by an exaggerated sunburn reaction has been observed in some individuals taking tetracyclines. Patients apt to be exposed to direct sunlight or ultraviolet light should be advised that this reaction can occur with tetracycline drugs, and treatment should be discontinued at the first evidence of skin erythema.

PRECAUTIONS

General

As with other antibiotic preparations, use of this drug may result in overgrowth of non-susceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, the antibiotic should be discontinued and appropriate therapy instituted.

Bulging fontanels in infants and benign intracranial hypertension in adults have been reported in individuals receiving tetracyclines. These conditions disappeared when the drug was discontinued.

Incision and drainage or other surgical procedures should be performed in conjunction with antibiotic therapy, when indicated.

Doxycycline offers substantial but not complete suppression of the asexual blood stages of Plasmodium strains.

Doxycycline does not suppress P. falciparum’s sexual blood stage gametocytes. Subjects completing this prophylactic regimen may still transmit the infection to mosquitoes outside endemic areas.

Prescribing DORYX in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

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