DORZOLAMIDE HYDROCHLORIDE- dorzolamide hydrochloride solution/ drops
Dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution is indicated in the treatment of elevated intraocular pressure in patients with ocular hypertension or open-angle glaucoma.
The dose is one drop of dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution in the affected eye(s) three times daily. Dorzolamide hydrochloride may be used concomitantly with other topical ophthalmic drug products to lower intraocular pressure. If more than one topical ophthalmic drug is being used, the drugs should be administered at least five minutes apart.
Ophthalmic solution containing dorzolamide 2% (20 mg/mL) equivalent to 22.3 mg/mL of dorzolamide hydrochloride.
Dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to any component of this product [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ].
Dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution contains dorzolamide, a sulfonamide; and although administered topically, it is absorbed systemically. Therefore, the same types of adverse reactions that are attributable to sulfonamides may occur with topical administration of dorzolamide hydrochloride. Fatalities have occurred, although rarely, due to severe reactions to sulfonamides including Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, fulminant hepatic necrosis, agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia, and other blood dyscrasias. Sensitization may recur when a sulfonamide is readministered irrespective of the route of administration. If signs of serious reactions or hypersensitivity occur, discontinue the use of this preparation [see Contraindications (4)].
There have been reports of bacterial keratitis associated with the use of multiple-dose containers of topical ophthalmic products. These containers had been inadvertently contaminated by patients who, in most cases, had a concurrent corneal disease or a disruption of the ocular epithelial surface.
Carbonic anhydrase activity has been observed in both the cytoplasm and around the plasma membranes of the corneal endothelium. There is an increased potential for developing corneal edema in patients with low endothelial cell counts. Caution should be used when prescribing dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution to this group of patients.
In clinical studies, local ocular adverse effects, primarily conjunctivitis and lid reactions, were reported with chronic administration of dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. Many of these reactions had the clinical appearance and course of an allergic-type reaction that resolved upon discontinuation of drug therapy. If such reactions are observed, dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution should be discontinued and the patient evaluated before considering restarting the drug [see Adverse Reactions (6) ].
The management of patients with acute angle-closure glaucoma requires therapeutic interventions in addition to ocular hypotensive agents.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Controlled clinical trials: The most frequent adverse reactions associated with dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution were ocular burning, stinging, or discomfort immediately following ocular administration (approximately one-third of patients). Approximately one-quarter of patients noted a bitter taste following administration. Superficial punctate keratitis occurred in 10 to 15% of patients and signs and symptoms of ocular allergic reaction in approximately 10%. Reactions occurring in approximately 1 to 5% of patients were conjunctivitis and lid reactions [seeWarnings and Precautions (5.4) ], blurred vision, eye redness, tearing, dryness, and photophobia. Other ocular reactions and systemic reactions were reported infrequently, including headache, nausea, asthenia/fatigue; and, rarely, skin rashes, urolithiasis, and iridocyclitis.
In a 3-month, double-masked, active-treatment-controlled, multicenter study in pediatric patients, the adverse reactions profile of dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution was comparable to that seen in adult patients.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: signs and symptoms of systemic allergic reactions including angioedema, bronchospasm, pruritus, and urticaria; Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis; dizziness, paresthesia; ocular pain, transient myopia, choroidal detachment following filtration surgery, eyelid crusting; dyspnea; contact dermatitis, epistaxis, dry mouth and throat irritation.
There is a potential for an additive effect on the known systemic effects of carbonic anhydrase inhibition in patients receiving an oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor and dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. The concomitant administration of dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution and oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors is not recommended.
Although acid-base and electrolyte disturbances were not reported in the clinical trials with dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution, these disturbances have been reported with oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors and have, in some instances, resulted in drug interactions (e.g., toxicity associated with high-dose salicylate therapy). Therefore, the potential for such drug interactions should be considered in patients receiving dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution.
There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women with dorzolamide hydrochloride ophthalmic solution. Dorzolamide caused fetal vertebral malformations when administered orally to rabbits at 2.5 mg/kg/day (37 times the clinical exposure). Dorzolamide administered during the period of organogenesis was not teratogenic in rabbits dosed up to 1 mg/kg/day (15 times the clinical exposure). Dorzolamide hydrochloride administered orally to rats during late gestation and lactation caused growth delays in offspring at 7.5 mg/kg/day (52 times the clinical exposure). Growth was not delayed at 1 mg/kg/day (8.0 times the clinical exposure).
The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Developmental toxicity studies were conducted in pregnant rabbits administered dorzolamide hydrochloride orally during the period of organogenesis from gestation days 6 through 18 at doses of 0.2, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg/day. The developmental lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) was 2.5 mg/kg/day, based on vertebral malformations and decreased fetal body weight. The maternal LOAEL was 2.5 mg/kg/day, based on metabolic acidosis and reduced weight gain. The maternal and developmental no adverse effect levels (NOAELs) were 1 mg/kg/day. The rabbit doses of 1 and 2.5 mg/kg/day represent estimated plasma Cmax levels in rabbits 15 and 37 times higher than the lower limit of detection in human plasma following ocular administration, respectively.
Dorzolamide hydrochloride was administered orally to rats during late gestation and lactation (gestation day 17 through postpartum day 20) at doses of 0.1, 1, or 7.5 mg/kg/day. The developmental LOAEL was 7.5 mg/kg/day, based on reduced birth weight, reduced weight gain, and a slight delay in postnatal development (incisor eruption, vaginal canalization and eye openings) secondary to lower offspring body weight. This 7.5 mg/kg/day dose represents an estimated plasma Cmax level in rats 52 times higher than the lower limit of detection in human plasma following ocular administration. The developmental NOAEL was 1 mg/kg/day. The maternal LOAEL was 1 mg/kg/day, based on reduced body weight gain. The maternal NOAEL was 0.1 mg/kg/day. The rat doses of 1 and 0.1 mg/kg/day represent estimated plasma Cmax levels in rats approximately 8.0 times and approximately equal (1x), respectively to the lower limit of detection in human plasma following ocular administration.
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