Doxorubicin Hydrochloride Liposome (Page 4 of 7)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: muscle spasms

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: pulmonary embolism (in some cases fatal)

Hematologic Disorders: Secondary acute myelogenous leukemia

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: erythema multiforme, Stevens‑Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis, lichenoid keratosis

Secondary Oral Neoplasms: [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

No formal drug interaction studies have been conducted with doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Based on findings in animals and its mechanism of action, doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman; avoid use of doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection during the 1st trimester. In animal reproduction studies, doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection was embryotoxic in rats and abortifacient in rabbits following intravenous administration during organogenesis at doses approximately 0.12 times the recommended clinical dose (see Data). Available human data do not establish the presence or absence of major birth defects and miscarriage related to the use of doxorubicin hydrochloride during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.

The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations are unknown. However, the background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2-4% and of miscarriage is 15-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies.

Data

Animal Data

Doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection was embryotoxic at doses of 1 mg/kg/day in rats and was embryotoxic and abortifacient at 0.5 mg/kg/day in rabbits (both doses are about 0.12 times the recommended dose of 50 mg/m2 human dose on a mg/m2 basis). Embryotoxicity was characterized by increased embryo-fetal deaths and reduced live litter sizes.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

It is not known whether doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection is present in human milk. Because many drugs, including anthracyclines, are excreted in human milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants from doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection, discontinue breastfeeding during treatment with doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Pregnancy Testing

Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiating doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection.

Contraception

Females

Doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during and for 6 months after treatment with doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection.

Males

Doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection may damage spermatozoa and testicular tissue, resulting in possible genetic fetal abnormalities. Males with female sexual partners of reproductive potential should use effective contraception during and for 6 months after treatment with doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection [see Non‑clinical Toxicology (13.1)].

Infertility

Females

In females of reproductive potential, doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection may cause infertility and result in amenorrhea. Premature menopause can occur with doxorubicin hydrochloride. Recovery of menses and ovulation is related to age at treatment.

Males

Doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection may result in oligospermia, azoospermia, and permanent loss of fertility. Sperm counts have been reported to return to normal levels in some men. This may occur several years after the end of therapy [see Non-clinical Toxicology (13.1)].

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection conducted in patients with either epithelial ovarian cancer (Trial 4) or with AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma (Trial 5) did not contain sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.

In Trial 6, of 318 patients treated with doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection in combination with bortezomib for multiple myeloma, 37% were 65 years of age or older and 8% were 75 years of age or older. No overall differences in safety or efficacy were observed between these patients and younger patients.

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

The pharmacokinetics of doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection has not been adequately evaluated in patients with hepatic impairment. Doxorubicin is eliminated in large part by the liver. Reduce doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection for serum bilirubin of 1.2 mg/dL or higher.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Acute overdosage with doxorubicin hydrochloride causes increased risk of severe mucositis, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia.

11 DESCRIPTION

The active ingredient in Doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection is doxorubicin hydrochloride, an anthracycline topoisomerase inhibitor, that is encapsulated in STEALTH liposomes for intravenous use.

The chemical name of doxorubicin hydrochloride is (8S,10S)-10-[(3-amino-2,3,6‑trideoxy-α-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)oxy]-8-glycolyl-7,8,9,10-tetrahydro-6,8,11‑trihydroxy-1-methoxy-5,12-naphthacenedione hydrochloride. The molecular formula is C27 H29 NO11 •HCl and the molecular weight is 579.99.

The structural formula is:

Doxorubicin HCl Structural Formula

Doxorubicin hydrochloride liposome injection is a sterile, translucent, red liposomal dispersion. Each single-dose vial contains 20 mg or 50 mg doxorubicin hydrochloride at a concentration of 2 mg/mL (equivalent to 1.87 mg/mL of doxorubicin). The STEALTH liposome carriers are composed of cholesterol, 3.19 mg/mL; fully hydrogenated soy phosphatidylcholine (HSPC), 9.58 mg/mL; and N‑(carbonyl‑methoxypolyethylene glycol 2000)-1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3‑phosphoethanolamine sodium salt (MPEG-DSPE), 3.19 mg/mL. Each mL also contains ammonium sulfate, approximately 0.6 mg; histidine, 1.55 mg as a buffer; hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide may have been added for pH adjustment (6.0 to 7.0); and sucrose, 94 mg to maintain isotonicity. Greater than 90% of the drug is encapsulated in the STEALTH liposomes.

MPEG-DSPE has the following structural formula:

MPEG-DSPE Structural Formula
(click image for full-size original)

HSPC has the following structural formula:

HSPC Structural Formula
(click image for full-size original)

Representation of a STEALTH liposome:

STEALTH liposome Representation
(click image for full-size original)

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