DOXYCYCLINE

DOXYCYCLINE- doxycycline hyclate injection, powder, lyophilized, for solution
Henry Schein, Inc

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of doxycycline and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DESCRIPTION

Doxycycline for injection, USP is a sterile pale yellow lyophilized powder or cake and an antibacterial drug synthetically derived from oxytetracycline, and is available as doxycycline hyclate USP. The chemical designation of this yellow to light yellow crystalline powder is 4-(Dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacenecarboxamide monohydrochloride, compound with ethyl alcohol (2:1), monohydrate. It has the following structural formula:

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Doxycycline freely soluble in water and in methanol. Sparingly soluble in ethanol (96%). It dissolves in solutions of alkali hydroxides and carbonates. Practically insoluble in chloroform, in ether and in other organic solvents.

Each 100 mg vial contains doxycycline hyclate, USP equivalent to 100 mg doxycycline. It also contains ascorbic acid 480 mg and mannitol 300 mg as inactive ingredients and does not contain preservatives. The pH of the reconstituted solution (10 mg/mL) is between 1.8 and 3.3.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Tetracyclines are readily absorbed and are bound to plasma proteins in varying degree. They are concentrated by the liver in the bile, and excreted in the urine and feces at high concentrations and in a biologically active form.

Following a single 100 mg dose administered in a concentration of 0.4 mg/mL in a one-hour infusion, normal adult volunteers average a peak of 2.5 mcg/mL, while 200 mg of a concentration of 0.4 mg/mL administered over two hours averaged a peak of 3.6 mcg/mL. Excretion of doxycycline by the kidney is about 40 percent/72 hours in individuals with normal function (creatinine clearance about 75 mL/min.). This percentage excretion may fall as low as 1 to 5 percent/72 hours in individuals with severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance below 10 mL/min.). Studies have shown no significant difference in serum half-life of doxycycline (range 18 to 22 hours) in individuals with normal and severely impaired renal function.

Hemodialysis does not alter this serum half-life of doxycycline.

Population pharmacokinetic analysis of sparse concentration-time data of doxycycline following standard of care intravenous and oral dosing in 44 pediatric patients (2 to 18 years of age) showed that allometrically-scaled clearance (CL) of doxycycline in pediatric patients ≥2 to ≤8 years of age (median [range] 3.58 [2.27 to 10.82] L/h/70 kg, N=11) did not differ significantly from pediatric patients >8 to 18 years of age (3.27 [1.11 to 8.12] L/h/70 kg, N=33). For pediatric patients weighing ≤45 kg, body weight normalized doxycycline CL in those ≥2 to ≤8 years of age (median [range] 0.071 [0.041 to 0.202] L/kg/h, N=10) did not differ significantly from those >8 to 18 years of age (0.081 [0.035 to 0.126] L/kg/h, N=8). ln pediatric patients weighing >45 kg, no clinically significant differences in body weight normalized doxycycline CL were observed between those ≥2 to ≤8 years (0.050 L/kg/h, N=l) and those >8 to 18 years of age (0.044 [0.014 to 0.121] L/kg/h, N=25). No clinically significant difference in CL between oral and IV dosing was observed in the small cohort of pediatric patients who received the oral (N=19) or IV (N=21) formulation alone.

Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Doxycycline inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Doxycycline has bacteriostatic activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

Resistance

Cross resistance with other tetracyclines is common.

Antimicrobial Activity

Doxycycline has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section of the package insert for doxycycline for injection.

Gram-Negative Bacteria

Acinetobacter species

Bartonella bacilliformis

Brucella species

Klebsiella species

Klebsiella granulomatis

Campylobacter fetus

Enterobacter aerogenes

Escherichia coli

Francisella tularensis

Haemophilus ducreyi

Haemophilus influenzae

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Shigella species

Vibrio cholerae

Yersinia pestis

Gram-Positive Bacteria

Bacillus anthracis

Listeria monocytogenes

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Anaerobic Bacteria

Clostridium species

Fusobacterium fusiforme

Propionibacterium acnes

Other Bacteria

Nocardiae and other aerobic Actinomyces species

Borrelia recurrentis

Chlamydophila psittaci

Chlamydia trachomatis

Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Rickettsiae

Treponema pallidum

Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue

Ureaplasma urealyticum

Parasites

Balantidium coli

Entamoeba species

Plasmodium falciparum*

*Doxycycline has been found to be active against the asexual erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum, but not against the gametocytes of P. falciparum. The precise mechanism of action of the drug is not known.

Susceptibility Testing

For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of doxycycline for injection and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline for injection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Doxycycline is indicated in infections caused by the following microorganisms:

Rickettsiae (Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox and tick fevers).

Mycoplasma pneumoniae (PPLO, Eaton Agent).

Agents of psittacosis and ornithosis.

Agents of lymphogranuloma venereum and granuloma inguinale.

The spirochetal agent of relapsing fever (Borrelia recurrentis).
The following gram-negative microorganisms:

Haemophilus ducreyi (chancroid),

Yersinia pestis

Francisella tularensis,

Bartonella bacilliformis,

Bacteroides species,

Vibrio cholerae and

Campylobacte fetus,

Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin).
Because many strains of the following groups of microorganisms have been shown to be resistant to tetracyclines, culture and susceptibility testing are recommended.

Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

Escherichia coli,

Enterobacter aerogenes,

Shigella species,

Acinetobacter species,

Haemophilus influenzae (respiratory infections),

Klebsiella species (respiratory and urinary infections).
Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-positive microorganisms when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:

Streptococcus species:

Up to 44 percent of strains of Streptococcus pyogenes and 74 percent of Streptococcus faecalis have been found to be resistant to tetracycline drugs. Therefore, tetracyclines should not be used for streptococcal disease unless the organism has been demonstrated to be sensitive.

For upper respiratory infections due to group A beta-hemolytic streptococci, penicillin is the usual drug of choice, including prophylaxis of rheumatic fever.

Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, respiratory skin and soft tissue infections. Tetracyclines are not the drugs of choice in the treatment of any type of staphylococcal infections.

Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis, including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.

When penicillin is contraindicated, doxycycline is an alternative drug in the treatment of infections due to:

Neisseria gonorrhoeae and N. meningitidis,

Treponema pallidum and Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue (syphilis and yaws),

Listeria monocytogenes,

Clostridium species,

Fusobacterium fusiforme (Vincent’s infection),

Actinomyces species.
In acute intestinal amebiasis, doxycycline may be a useful adjunct to amebicides.

Doxycycline is indicated in the treatment of trachoma, although the infectious agent is not always eliminated, as judged by immunofluorescence.

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