DOXYCYCLINE HYCLATE- doxycycline hyclate capsule
Bryant Ranch Prepack
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of doxycycline hyclate and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline hyclate should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
The chemical designation for doxycyclin is 4-(Dimethylamino)-1,4,4a,5,5a,6,11,12a-octahydro-3,5,10,12,12a-pentahydroxy-6-methyl-1,11-dioxo-2-naphthacene-carboxamide monohydrate.
The structural formula of doxycycline hyclate is
Doxycycline hyclate, USP is yellow to light yellow powder. It is freely soluble in water and methanol, sparingly soluble in alcohol; practically insoluble in chloroform and in ether. It dissolves in aqueous solution of alkali hydroxides and carbonates.
Doxycycline has a high degree of lipoid solubility and a low affinity for calcium binding. It is highly stable in normal human serum. Doxycycline will not degrade into an epianhydro form.
Each capsule contains doxycycline hyclate equivalent to doxycycline 50 mg or 100 mg and inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, croscarmellose sodium, D&C red 28, FD & C blue 1, gelatin, microcrystalline cellulose, magnesium stearate and sodium lauryl sulfate and titanium dioxide. Each capsule cap is printed with white pharmaceutical ink and capsule body is printed with black pharmaceutical ink which contains following ingredient butyl alcohol, dehydrated alcohol, isopropyl alcohol, potassium hydroxide, propylene glycol, strong ammonia solution, and shellac. Additionally black pharmaceutical ink also contains black iron oxide.
Tetracyclines are readily absorbed and are bound to plasma proteins in varying degree. They are concentrated by the liver in the bile and excreted in the urine and feces at high concentrations and in a biologically active form. Doxycycline is virtually completely absorbed after oral administration.
Following a 200 mg dose, normal adult volunteers averaged peak serum levels of 2.6 mcg/mL of doxycycline at 2 hours, decreasing to 1.45 mcg/mL at 24 hours. Excretion of doxycycline by the kidney is about 40%/72 hours in individuals with normal function (creatinine clearance about 75 mL/min.). This percentage excretion may fall as low as 1 to 5%/72 hours in individuals with severe renal insufficiency (creatinine clearance below 10 mL/min.). Studies have shown no significant difference in serum half-life of doxycycline (range 18 to 22 hours) in individuals with normal and severely impaired renal function.
Hemodialysis does not alter serum half-life.
Results of animal studies indicate that tetracyclines cross the placenta and are found in fetal tissues.
Population pharmacokinetic analysis of sparse concentration-time data of doxycycline following standard of care intravenous and oral dosing in 44 pediatric patients (2 years to 18 years of age) showed that allometrically -scaled clearance (CL) of doxycycline in pediatric patients ≥2 to ≤8 years of age (median [range] 3.58 [2.27 to 10.82] L/h/70 kg, N =11) did not differ significantly from pediatric patients >8 years to 18 years of age (3.27 [1.11 to 8.12] L/h/70 kg, N=33). For pediatric patients weighing ≤45 kg, body weight normalized doxycycline CL in those ≥2 years to ≤8 years of age (median [range] 0.071 [0 .041 to 0.202] L/kg/h, N=10) did not differ significantly from those >8 years to 18 years of age (0.081 [0.035 to 0.126] L/kg/h, N=8). In pediatric patients weighing >45 kg, no clinically significant differences in body weight normalized doxycycline CL were observed between those ≥2 years to ≤8 years (0.050 L/kg/h, N=l) and those >8 years to 18 years of age (0.044 [0.014 to 0.121] L/kg/h, N=25). No clinically significant difference in CL between oral and IV dosing was observed in the small cohort of pediatric patients who received the oral (N=19) or IV (N=2l) formulation alone.
Doxycycline inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 30S ribosomal subunit. Doxycycline has bacteriostatic activity against a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram- negative bacteria.
Cross resistance with other tetracyclines is common.
Doxycycline has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section of the package insert for doxycycline hyclate.
Nocardiae and other aerobic Actinomyces species
Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue
*Doxycycline has been found to be active against the asexual erythrocytic forms of Plasmodium falciparum , but not against the gametocytes of P. falciparum. The precise mechanism of action of the drug is not known.
For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain effectiveness of doxycycline hyclate and other antibacterial drugs, doxycycline hyclate capsules should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
- Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever and the typhus group, Q fever, rickettsialpox, and tick fevers caused by Rickettsiae.
- Respiratory tract infections caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae.
- Lymphogranuloma venereum caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
- Psittacosis (ornithosis) caused by Chlamydophila psittaci.
- Trachoma caused by Chlamydia trachomatis , although the infectious agent is not always eliminated, as judged by immunofluorescence.
- Inclusion conjunctivitis caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
- Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infections in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis.
- Nongonococcal urethritis caused by Ureaplasma urealyticum.
- Relapsing fever due to Borrelia recurrentis.
- Chancroid caused by Haemophilus ducreyi.
- Plague due to Yersinia pestis.
- Tularemia due to Francisella tularensis.
- Cholera caused by Vibrio cholerae.
- Campylobacter fetus infections caused by Campylobacter fetus.
- Brucellosis due to Brucella species (in conjunction with streptomycin).
- Bartonellosis due to Bartonella bacilliformis.
- Granuloma inguinale caused by Klebsiella granulomatis.
Doxycycline is indicated for treatment of infections caused by the following gram-negative bacteria, when bacteriologic testing indicates appropriate susceptibility to the drug:
- Escherichia coli.
- Enterobacter aerogenes.
- Shigella species.
- Acinetobacter species.
- Respiratory tract infections caused by Haemophilus influenzae.
- Respiratory tract and urinary tract infections caused by Klebsiella species.
- Upper respiratory infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.
- Anthrax due to Bacillus anthracis , including inhalational anthrax (post-exposure): to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.
- Uncomplicated gonorrhea caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae.
- Syphilis caused by Treponema pallidum.
- Yaws caused by Treponema pallidum subspecies pertenue.
- Listeriosis due to Listeria monocytogenes.
- Vincent’s infection caused by Fusobacterium fusiforme.
- Actinomycosis caused by Actinomyces israelii.
- Infections caused by Clostridium species.
In severe acne, doxycycline may be useful adjunctive therapy.
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