Because of the effects of drugs of the tetracycline-class on tooth development and growth, use doxycycline in pediatric patients 8 years of age or less only when the potential benefits are expected to outweigh the risks in severe or life-threatening conditions (e.g., anthrax, Rocky Mountain spotted fever), particularly when there are no alternative therapies. (See WARNINGS and DOSAGE ANDADMINISTRATION.)
Due to oral doxycycline’s virtually complete absorption, side effects of the lower bowel, particularly diarrhea, have been infrequent. The following adverse reactions have been observed in patients receiving tetracyclines:
Gastrointestinal: anorexia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, glossitis, dysphagia, enterocolitis, inflammatory lesions (with monilial overgrowth) in the anogenital region, and pancreatitis. Hepatotoxicity has been reported rarely. These reactions have been caused by both the oral and parenteral administration of tetracyclines. Superficial discoloration of the adult permanent dentition, reversible upon drug discontinuation and professional dental cleaning has been reported. Permanent tooth discoloration and enamel hypoplasia may occur with drugs of the tetracycline class when used during tooth development. (See WARNINGS.) Rare instances of esophagitis and esophageal ulcerations have been reported in patients receiving capsule and tablet forms of the drugs in the tetracycline class. Most of these patients took medications immediately before going to bed. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Skin: toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, erythema multiforme, maculopapular and erythematous rashes. Exfoliative dermatitis has been reported but is uncommon. Photosensitivity is discussed above. (See WARNINGS.)
Renal toxicity: Rise in BUN has been reported and is apparently dose related. (See WARNINGS.)
Immune: Hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, angioneurotic edema, anaphylaxis, anaphylactoid purpura, serum sickness, pericarditis, exacerbation of systemic lupus erythematosus, and drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS).
Blood: Hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, neutropenia, and eosinophilia have been reported.
Other: Bulging fontanels in infants and intracranial hypertension in adults. (See WARNINGS.)
When given over prolonged periods, tetracyclines have been reported to produce brown-black microscopic discoloration of the thyroid gland. No abnormalities of thyroid function studies are known to occur.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Blu Pharmaceuticals at 1-888-374-2791, or the FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
In case of overdosage, discontinue medication, treat symptomatically and institute supportive measures. Dialysis does not alter serum half-life and thus would not be of benefit in treating cases of overdosage.
The usual dosage and frequency of administration of doxycycline differs from that of the other tetracyclines. Exceeding the recommended dosage may result in an increased incidence of side effects.
The usual dose of oral doxycycline hyclate tablets is 200 mg on the first day of treatment (administered 100 mg every 12 hours) followed by a maintenance dose of 100 mg/day.
In the management of more severe infections (particularly chronic infections of the urinary tract), 100 mg every 12 hours is recommended.
For all pediatric patients weighing less than 45 kg with severe or life-threatening infections (e.g., anthrax, Rocky Mountain spotted fever), the recommended dosage is 2.2 mg/kg of body weight administered every 12 hours. Children weighing 45 kg or more should receive the adult dose. (See WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS.) For pediatric patients with less severe disease (greater than 8 years of age and weighing less than 45 kg), the recommended dosage schedule is 4.4 mg/kg of body weight divided into two doses on the first day of treatment, followed by a maintenance dose of 2.2 mg/kg of body weight (given as a single daily dose or divided into twice daily doses). For pediatric patients weighing over 45 kg, the usual adult dose should be used.
The therapeutic antibacterial serum activity will usually persist for 24 hours following recommended dosage.
When used in streptococcal infections, therapy should be continued for 10 days.
Administration of adequate amounts of fluid along with capsule and tablet forms of drugs in the tetracycline class is recommended to wash down the drugs and reduce the risk of esophageal irritation and ulceration. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS.)
If gastric irritation occurs, it is recommended that doxycycline be given with food or milk. The absorption of doxycycline is not markedly influenced by simultaneous ingestion of food or milk.
Studies to date have indicated that administration of doxycycline at the usual recommended doses does not lead to excessive accumulation of doxycycline in patients with renal impairment.
Uncomplicated gonococcal infections in adults (except anorectal infections in men): 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for 7 days. As an alternate single visit dose, administer 300 mg stat followed in one hour by a second 300 mg dose. The dose may be administered with food, including milk or carbonated beverage, as required.
Uncomplicated urethral, endocervical, or rectal infection in adults caused by Chlamydia trachomatis: 100 mg, by mouth twice a day for 7 days.
Nongonococcal urethritis (NGU) caused by C. trachomatis or U. urealyticum: 100 mg by mouth, twice a day for 7 days.
Syphilis – early: Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated with doxycycline 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for 2 weeks.
Syphilis of more than one year’s duration: Patients who are allergic to penicillin should be treated with doxycycline 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for 4 weeks.
Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by N. gonorrhoeae: 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for at least 10 days.
Acute epididymo-orchitis caused by C. trachomatis: 100 mg, by mouth, twice a day for at least 10 days.
For prophylaxis of malaria: For adults, the recommended dose is 100 mg daily. For children over 8 years of age, the recommended dose is 2 mg/kg given once daily up to the adult dose. Prophylaxis should begin 1 to 2 days before travel to the malarious area. Prophylaxis should be continued daily during travel in the malarious area and for 4 weeks after the traveler leaves the malarious area.
Inhalational anthrax (post-exposure):
ADULTS: 100 mg of doxycycline hyclate tablets, by mouth, twice a day for 60 days.
CHILDREN: weighing less than 45 kg; 2.2 mg/kg of body weight by mouth, twice a day for 60 days. Children weighing 45 kg or more should receive the adult dose.
Doxycycline hyclate tablets, USP equivalent to 100 mg of doxycycline: Beige color, round convex, film coated tablets debossed “312” below, “B” on one side and plain on the other.
Bottles of 20 tablets
Bottles of 50 tablets
Bottles of 100 tablets
Bottles of 500 tablets
Bottles of 1000 tablets
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F) [See USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Protect from light and moisture.
Dispense in a tight, light-resistant container as defined in the USP using a child-resistant closure.
Hyperpigmentation of the thyroid has been produced by members of the tetracycline class in the following species: in rats by oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline PO4 , and methacycline; in minipigs by doxycycline, minocycline, tetracycline PO4 , and methacycline; in dogs by doxycycline and minocycline; in monkeys by minocycline.
Minocycline, tetracycline PO4 , methacycline, doxycycline, tetracycline base, oxytetracycline HCl, and tetracycline HCl were goitrogenic in rats fed a low iodine diet. This goitrogenic effect was accompanied by high radioactive iodine uptake. Administration of minocycline also produced a large goiter with high radioiodine uptake in rats fed a relatively high iodine diet.
Treatment of various animal species with this class of drugs has also resulted in the induction of thyroid hyperplasia in the following: in rats and dogs (minocycline); in chickens (chlortetracycline); and in rats and mice (oxytetracycline). Adrenal gland hyperplasia has been observed in goats and rats treated with oxytetracycline.
All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.