Women with a history of depression should be carefully observed and drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol and levomefolate calcium tablets and levomefolate calcium tablets discontinued if depression recurs to a serious degree.
The use of COCs may change the results of some laboratory tests, such as coagulation factors, lipids, glucose tolerance, and binding proteins. Women on thyroid hormone replacement therapy may need increased doses of thyroid hormone because serum concentrations of thyroid-binding globulin increase with use of COCs [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].
DRSP causes an increase in plasma renin activity and plasma aldosterone induced by its mild anti-mineralocorticoid activity.
Folates may mask vitamin B12 deficiency.
In women with hereditary angioedema, exogenous estrogens may induce or exacerbate symptoms of angioedema. Chloasma may occasionally occur, especially in women with a history of chloasma gravidarum. Women with a tendency to chloasma should avoid exposure to the sun or ultraviolet radiation while taking COCs.
- Serious cardiovascular events and stroke [see Boxed Warning andWarnings And Precautions (5.1)]
- Vascular events [see Warnings And Precautions (5.1)]
- Liver disease [see Warnings And Precautions (5.4)]
- Irregular uterine bleeding
- Breast tenderness
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, the adverse reaction rates observed cannot be directly compared to rates in other clinical trials and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Contraception, Acne and Folate Supplementation Clinical Trials
The data provided reflect the experience with the use of YAZ® (3 mg DRSP/0.02 mg EE), in the adequate and well-controlled studies for contraception (N=1,056), for moderate acne vulgaris (N=536) and folate supplementation (N=379).
For contraception, a Phase 3, multicenter, multinational, open-label study was conducted to evaluate safety and efficacy up to one year in 1,027 women aged 17 to 36 who took at least one dose of YAZ®. A second Phase 3 study was a single center, open-label, active-controlled study to evaluate the effect of 7 28-day cycles of YAZ® on carbohydrate metabolism, lipids and hemostasis in 29 women aged 18 to 35. For acne, two multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled studies, in 536 women aged 14 to 45 with moderate acne vulgaris who took at least one dose of YAZ® , evaluated the safety and efficacy during up to 6 cycles. For folate supplementation, the primary efficacy study using drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol and levomefolate calcium tablets and levomefolate calcium tablets was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, active-controlled US trial in 379 healthy women aged 18 to 40 who were treated with drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol and levomefolate calcium tablets and levomefolate calcium tablets or YAZ® for up to 24 weeks.
The adverse reactions seen across the 3 indications overlapped, and are reported using the frequencies from the pooled dataset. The most common adverse reactions (≥2% of users) were: headache/migraine (5.9%), menstrual irregularities (including vaginal hemorrhage [primarily spotting], metrorrhagia and menorrhagia) (4.1%), nausea/vomiting (3.5%), and breast pain/tenderness (3.2%).
PMDD Clinical Trials
Safety data from trials for the indication of PMDD are reported separately due to differences in study design and setting in the OC, Acne and Folate Supplementation studies as compared to the PMDD clinical program.
Two (one parallel and one crossover designed) multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trials for the secondary indication of treating the symptoms of PMDD evaluated safety and efficacy of YAZ® during up to 3 cycles among 285 women aged 18 to 42, diagnosed with PMDD and who took at least one dose of YAZ®.
Common adverse reactions (≥2% of users) were: menstrual irregularities (including vaginal hemorrhage [primarily spotting] and metrorrhagia) (24.9%), nausea (15.8%), headache (13.0%), breast tenderness (10.5%), fatigue (4.2%), irritability (2.8%), decreased libido (2.8%), increased weight (2.5%), and affect lability (2.1%).
Adverse Reactions (≥1%) Leading to Study Discontinuation
Contraception Clinical Trials:
Of 1,056 women, 6.6% discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were headache/migraine (1.6%) and nausea/vomiting (1.0%).
Acne Clinical Trials:
Of 536 women, 5.4% discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most frequent adverse reaction leading to discontinuation was menstrual irregularities (including menometrorrhagia, menorrhagia, metrorrhagia and vaginal hemorrhage) (2.2%).
Folate Clinical Trial:
Of 285 women, 4.6% who used drospirenone, ethinyl estradiol and levomefolate calcium tablets and levomefolate calcium tablets or YAZ® discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; no reaction leading to discontinuation occurred in ≥ 1% of women.
PMDD Clinical Trials:
Of 285 women, 11.6% discontinued from the clinical trials due to an adverse reaction; the most frequent adverse reactions leading to discontinuation were: nausea/vomiting (4.6%), menstrual irregularity (including vaginal hemorrhage, menorrhagia, menstrual disorder, menstruation irregular and metrorrhagia) (4.2%), fatigue (1.8%), breast tenderness (1.4%), depression (1.4%), headache (1.1%), and irritability (1.1%).
Serious Adverse Reactions
Contraception Clinical Trials:
Migraine and cervical dysplasia
Acne Clinical Trials:
None reported in the clinical trials
Folate Supplementation Clinical Trial:
Cervix carcinoma stage 0
PMDD Clinical Trials:
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of YAZ®. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Adverse reactions are grouped into System Organ Classes, and ordered by frequency.
Venous and arterial thromboembolic events (including pulmonary emboli, deep vein thrombosis, cerebral thrombosis, retinal thrombosis, myocardial infarction and stroke), hypertension (including hypertensive crisis)
Gallbladder disease, liver function disturbances, liver tumors
Immune System Disorders
Hypersensitivity (including anaphylactic reaction)
Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders
Hyperkalemia, hypertriglyceridemia, changes in glucose tolerance or effect on peripheral insulin resistance (including diabetes mellitus)
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders
Chloasma, angioedema, erythema nodosum, erythema multiforme
Inflammatory bowel disease
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders
Systemic lupus erythematosus
Drugs or herbal products that induce certain enzymes, including cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), may decrease the effectiveness of COCs or increase breakthrough bleeding. Some drugs or herbal products that may decrease the effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives include phenytoin, barbiturates, carbamazepine, bosentan, felbamate, griseofulvin, oxcarbazepine, rifampin, topiramate and products containing St. John’s wort. Interactions between oral contraceptives and other drugs may lead to breakthrough bleeding and/or contraceptive failure. Counsel women to use an alternative method of contraception or a back-up method when enzyme inducers are used with COCs, and to continue back-up contraception for 28 days after discontinuing the enzyme inducer to ensure contraceptive reliability.
Substances Increasing the Plasma Concentrations of COCs
Co-administration of atorvastatin and certain COCs containing EE increase AUC values for EE by approximately 20%. Ascorbic acid and acetaminophen may increase plasma EE concentrations, possibly by inhibition of conjugation.
Concomitant administration of moderate or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors such as azole antifungals (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, voriconazole, fluconazole), verapamil, macrolides (e.g., clarithromycin, erythromycin), diltiazem, and grapefruit juice can increase the plasma concentrations of the estrogen or the progestin or both. In a clinical drug-drug interaction study conducted in premenopausal women, once daily co-administration of DRSP 3 mg/EE 0.02 mg containing tablets with strong CYP3A4 inhibitor, ketoconazole 200 mg twice daily for 10 days resulted in a moderate increase of DRSP systemic exposure. The exposure of EE was increased mildly [see Warnings And Precautions (5.2) And Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/ Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Protease Inhibitors and Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors
Significant changes (increase or decrease) in the plasma concentrations of estrogen and progestin have been noted in some cases of co-administration with HIV/HCV protease inhibitors or with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
There have been reports of pregnancy while taking hormonal contraceptives and antibiotics, but clinical pharmacokinetic studies have not shown consistent effects of antibiotics on plasma concentrations of synthetic steroids.
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