The following adverse reactions have been reported during post-approval use of DULERA or post-approval use with inhaled mometasone furoate or inhaled formoterol fumarate. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Cardiac disorders: angina pectoris, cardiac arrhythmias, e.g., atrial fibrillation, ventricular extrasystoles, tachyarrhythmia
Immune system disorders: immediate and delayed hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylactic reaction, angioedema, severe hypotension, rash, pruritus
Investigations: electrocardiogram QT prolonged, blood pressure increased (including hypertension)
Metabolism and nutrition disorders: hypokalemia, hyperglycemia
Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: asthma aggravation, which may include cough, dyspnea, wheezing and bronchospasm
In clinical trials, concurrent administration of DULERA and other drugs, such as short-acting beta2 -agonist and intranasal corticosteroids have not resulted in an increased frequency of adverse drug reactions. No formal drug interaction studies have been performed with DULERA. The drug interactions of the combination are expected to reflect those of the individual components.
The main route of metabolism of corticosteroids, including mometasone furoate, a component of DULERA, is via cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoenzyme 3A4 (CYP3A4). After oral administration of ketoconazole, a strong inhibitor of CYP3A4, the mean plasma concentration of orally inhaled mometasone furoate increased. Concomitant administration of CYP3A4 inhibitors may inhibit the metabolism of, and increase the systemic exposure to, mometasone furoate. Caution should be exercised when considering the coadministration of DULERA with long-term ketoconazole and other known strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ritonavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir, telithromycin) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
If additional adrenergic drugs are to be administered by any route, they should be used with caution because the pharmacologically predictable sympathetic effects of formoterol, a component of DULERA, may be potentiated.
Concomitant treatment with xanthine derivatives may potentiate any hypokalemic effect of formoterol, a component of DULERA.
Concomitant treatment with diuretics may potentiate the possible hypokalemic effect of adrenergic agonists. The ECG changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from the administration of non-potassium-sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is not known, caution is advised in the coadministration of DULERA with non-potassium-sparing diuretics.
7.5 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Tricyclic Antidepressants, and Drugs Known to Prolong the QTc Interval
DULERA should be administered with caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, or drugs known to prolong the QTc interval or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of such agents, because the action of formoterol, a component of DULERA, on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by these agents. Drugs that are known to prolong the QTc interval have an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias.
Beta-adrenergic receptor antagonists (beta-blockers) and formoterol may inhibit the effect of each other when administered concurrently. Beta-blockers not only block the therapeutic effects of beta2 -agonists, such as formoterol, a component of DULERA, but may produce severe bronchospasm in patients with asthma. Therefore, patients with asthma should not normally be treated with beta-blockers. However, under certain circumstances, e.g., as prophylaxis after myocardial infarction, there may be no acceptable alternatives to the use of beta-blockers in patients with asthma. In this setting, cardioselective beta-blockers could be considered, although they should be administered with caution.
There is an elevated risk of arrhythmias in patients receiving concomitant anesthesia with halogenated hydrocarbons.
There are no randomized clinical studies of DULERA, mometasone furoate, or formoterol fumarate in pregnant women. There are clinical considerations with the use of DULERA in pregnant women [see Clinical Considerations]. Animal reproduction studies with DULERA are not available; however, studies are available with its individual components, mometasone furoate and formoterol fumarate. In animal reproduction studies, subcutaneous administration of mometasone furoate to pregnant mice, rats, or rabbits caused increased fetal malformations and decreased fetal survival and growth following administration of doses that produced exposures approximately 1/3 to 8 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a mcg/m2 or AUC basis [see Data]. However, experience with oral corticosteroids suggests that rodents are more prone to teratogenic effects from corticosteroid exposure than humans. In animal reproduction studies, oral administration of formoterol fumarate to pregnant rats and rabbits caused increased fetal malformations (rats and rabbits), decreased fetal weight (rats), and increased neonatal mortality (rats) following administration of doses that produced exposures approximately 1200 to 49,000 times the MRHD on a mg/m2 or AUC basis [see Data]. These adverse effects generally occurred at large multiples of the MRHD when formoterol fumarate was administered by the oral route to achieve high systemic exposures. No effects were observed in a study with rats that received formoterol fumarate by the inhalation route at an exposure approximately 500 times the MRHD.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Disease-associated maternal and/or embryo/fetal risk
In women with poorly or moderately controlled asthma, there is an increased risk of several perinatal adverse outcomes such as preeclampsia in the mother and prematurity, low birth weight, and small for gestational age in the neonate. Pregnant women with asthma should be closely monitored and medication adjusted as necessary to maintain optimal asthma control.
Labor or delivery
There are no adequate and well-controlled human studies that have studied the effects of DULERA during labor and delivery. Because of the potential for beta-agonist interference with uterine contractility, use of DULERA during labor should be restricted to those patients in whom the benefits clearly outweigh the risk.
In an embryofetal development study with pregnant mice dosed throughout the period of organogenesis, mometasone furoate produced cleft palate at an exposure approximately one-third of the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with maternal subcutaneous doses of 60 mcg/kg and above) and decreased fetal survival at an exposure approximately equivalent to the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 180 mcg/kg). No toxicity was observed with a dose that produced an exposure approximately one-tenth of the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with maternal topical dermal doses of 20 mcg/kg and above).
In an embryofetal development study with pregnant rats dosed throughout the period of organogenesis, mometasone furoate produced fetal umbilical hernia at exposures approximately 6 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with maternal topical dermal doses of 600 mcg/kg and above) and delays in fetal ossification at exposures approximately 3 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with maternal topical dermal doses of 300 mcg/kg and above).
In another reproductive toxicity study, pregnant rats were dosed with mometasone furoate throughout pregnancy or late in gestation. Treated animals had prolonged and difficult labor, fewer live births, lower birth weight, and reduced early pup survival at an exposure that was approximately 8 times the MRHD (on an area under the curve (AUC) basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 15 mcg/kg). There were no findings with an exposure approximately 4 times the MRHD (on an AUC basis with a maternal subcutaneous dose of 7.5 mcg/kg).
Embryofetal development studies were conducted with pregnant rabbits dosed with mometasone furoate by either the topical dermal route or oral route throughout the period of organogenesis. In the study using the topical dermal route, mometasone furoate caused multiple malformations in fetuses (e.g., flexed front paws, gallbladder agenesis, umbilical hernia, hydrocephaly) at an exposure approximately 3 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with maternal topical dermal doses of 150 mcg/kg and above). In the study using the oral route, mometasone furoate caused increased fetal resorptions and cleft palate and/or head malformations (hydrocephaly and domed head) at an exposure approximately 1/2 of the MRHD (on AUC basis with a maternal oral dose of 700 mcg/kg). At an exposure approximately 2 times the MRHD (on an AUC basis with a maternal oral dose of 2800 mcg/kg), most litters were aborted or resorbed. No effects were observed at an exposure approximately 1/10 of the MRHD (on an AUC basis with a maternal oral dose of 140 mcg/kg).
In embryofetal development studies with pregnant rats and rabbits dosed throughout the period of organogenesis, formoterol fumarate did not cause malformations in either species. However, for pregnant rats dosed throughout organogenesis, formoterol fumarate caused delayed fetal ossification at an exposure approximately 80 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with maternal oral doses of 200 mcg/kg and higher) and decreased fetal weight at an exposure approximately 2400 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with maternal oral doses of 6000 mcg/kg and above). In a pre- and post-natal development study with rats dosed during the late stage of pregnancy, formoterol fumarate caused stillbirth and neonatal mortality at an exposure approximately 2400 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with maternal oral doses of 6000 mcg/kg and above). However, no effects were observed in this study at an exposure approximately 80 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal oral dose of 200 mcg/kg).
In embryofetal development studies, conducted by another testing laboratory, with pregnant rats and rabbits dosed throughout the period of organogenesis, formoterol fumarate was teratogenic in both species. Umbilical hernia, a malformation, was observed in rat fetuses at exposures approximately 1200 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with maternal oral doses of 3000 mcg/kg/day and above). Brachygnathia, a skeletal malformation, was observed in rat fetuses at an exposure approximately 6100 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal oral dose of 15,000 mcg/kg/day). In another study with rats, no teratogenic effects were observed with exposures up to approximately 500 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal inhalation dose of 1200 mcg/kg/day). Subcapsular cysts on the liver were observed in rabbit fetuses at an exposure approximately 49,000 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal oral dose of 60,000 mcg/kg/day). No teratogenic effects were observed with exposures up to approximately 3000 times the MRHD (on a mcg/m2 basis with a maternal oral dose of 3500 mcg/kg).
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