Dulera (Page 5 of 9)

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

There are no available data on the presence of DULERA, mometasone furoate, or formoterol fumarate in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. Other inhaled corticosteroids, similar to mometasone furoate, are present in human milk. Formoterol fumarate is present in rat milk; however, due to species specific differences in lactation physiology, animal lactation data may not reliably predict levels in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for DULERA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from DULERA or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of DULERA have been established in patients 12 years of age and older in 3 clinical trials up to 52 weeks in duration. In the 3 clinical trials, 101 patients 12 to 17 years of age were treated with DULERA. Patients in this age-group demonstrated efficacy results similar to those observed in patients 18 years of age and older. There were no obvious differences in the type or frequency of adverse drug reactions reported in this age group compared to patients 18 years of age and older. Similar efficacy and safety results were observed in an additional 22 patients 12 to 17 years of age who were treated with DULERA in another clinical trial. The safety and efficacy of DULERA have not been established in children less than 12 years of age.

Controlled clinical studies have shown that inhaled corticosteroids may cause a reduction in growth velocity in pediatric patients. In these studies, the mean reduction in growth velocity was approximately 1 cm per year (range 0.3 to 1.8 per year) and appears to depend upon dose and duration of exposure. This effect was observed in the absence of laboratory evidence of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis suppression, suggesting that growth velocity is a more sensitive indicator of systemic corticosteroid exposure in pediatric patients than some commonly used tests of HPA axis function. The long-term effects of this reduction in growth velocity associated with orally inhaled corticosteroids, including the impact on final adult height, are unknown. The potential for “catch up” growth following discontinuation of treatment with orally inhaled corticosteroids has not been adequately studied.

The growth of children and adolescents receiving orally inhaled corticosteroids, including DULERA, should be monitored routinely (e.g., via stadiometry). If a child or adolescent on any corticosteroid appears to have growth suppression, the possibility that he/she is particularly sensitive to this effect should be considered. The potential growth effects of prolonged treatment should be weighed against clinical benefits obtained and the risks associated with alternative therapies. To minimize the systemic effects of orally inhaled corticosteroids, including DULERA, each patient should be titrated to his/her lowest effective dose [see Dosage and Administration (2.2)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

A total of 77 patients 65 years of age and older (11 of whom were 75 years and older) have been treated with DULERA in 3 clinical trials up to 52 weeks in duration. Similar efficacy and safety results were observed in an additional 28 patients 65 years of age and older who were treated with DULERA in another clinical trial. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these patients and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. As with other products containing beta2 -agonists, special caution should be observed when using DULERA in geriatric patients who have concomitant cardiovascular disease that could be adversely affected by beta2 -agonists. Based on available data for DULERA or its active components, no adjustment of dosage of DULERA in geriatric patients is warranted.

8.6 Hepatic Impairment

Concentrations of mometasone furoate appear to increase with severity of hepatic impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].


10.1 Signs and Symptoms

DULERA: DULERA contains both mometasone furoate and formoterol fumarate; therefore, the risks associated with overdosage for the individual components described below apply to DULERA.

Mometasone Furoate: Chronic overdosage may result in signs/symptoms of hypercorticism [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)]. Single oral doses up to 8000 mcg of mometasone furoate have been studied on human volunteers with no adverse reactions reported.

Formoterol Fumarate: The expected signs and symptoms with overdosage of formoterol are those of excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation and/or occurrence or exaggeration of any of the following signs and symptoms: angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia, with rates up to 200 beats/min., arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, seizures, muscle cramps, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, hypokalemia, hyperglycemia, and insomnia. Metabolic acidosis may also occur. Cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with an overdose of formoterol.

The minimum acute lethal inhalation dose of formoterol fumarate in rats is 156 mg/kg (approximately 63,000 times the MRHD on a mcg/m2 basis). The median lethal oral doses in Chinese hamsters, rats, and mice provide even higher multiples of the MRHD.

10.2 Treatment

DULERA: Treatment of overdosage consists of discontinuation of DULERA together with institution of appropriate symptomatic and/or supportive therapy. The judicious use of a cardioselective beta-receptor blocker may be considered, bearing in mind that such medication can produce bronchospasm. There is insufficient evidence to determine if dialysis is beneficial for overdosage of DULERA. Cardiac monitoring is recommended in cases of overdosage.


DULERA 100 mcg/5 mcg and DULERA 200 mcg/5 mcg are combinations of mometasone furoate and formoterol fumarate dihydrate for oral inhalation only.

One active component of DULERA is mometasone furoate, a corticosteroid having the chemical name 9,21-dichloro-11(Beta),17-dihydroxy-16 (alpha)-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 17-(2-furoate) with the following chemical structure:

Image of Mometasone Furoate Chemical Structure

Mometasone furoate is a white powder with an empirical formula of C27 H30 Cl2 O6 , and molecular weight 521.44. It is practically insoluble in water; slightly soluble in methanol, ethanol, and isopropanol; soluble in acetone.

One active component of DULERA is formoterol fumarate dihydrate, a racemate. Formoterol fumarate dihydrate is a selective beta2 -adrenergic bronchodilator having the chemical name of (±)-2-hydroxy-5-[(1RS)-1-hydroxy-2-[[(1RS)-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-methylethyl]-amino]ethyl]formanilide fumarate dihydrate with the following chemical structure:

Image of Formoterol Fumarate Dihydrate Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

Formoterol fumarate dihydrate has a molecular weight of 840.9, and its empirical formula is (C19 H24 N2 O4 )2 •C4 H4 O4 •2H2 O. Formoterol fumarate dihydrate is a white to yellowish powder, which is freely soluble in glacial acetic acid, soluble in methanol, sparingly soluble in ethanol and isopropanol, slightly soluble in water, and practically insoluble in acetone, ethyl acetate, and diethyl ether.

Each DULERA 100 mcg/5 mcg and 200 mcg/5 mcg is a hydrofluoroalkane (HFA-227) propelled pressurized metered dose inhaler containing sufficient amount of drug for 60 or 120 inhalations [see How Supplied/Storage and Handling (16)]. After priming, each actuation of the inhaler delivers 115 or 225 mcg of mometasone furoate and 5.5 mcg of formoterol fumarate dihydrate in 69.6 mg of suspension from the valve and delivers 100 or 200 mcg of mometasone furoate and 5 mcg of formoterol fumarate dihydrate from the actuator. The actual amount of drug delivered to the lung may depend on patient factors, such as the coordination between actuation of the device and inspiration through the delivery system. DULERA also contains anhydrous alcohol as a cosolvent and oleic acid as a surfactant.

DULERA should be primed before using for the first time by releasing 4 test sprays into the air, away from the face, shaking well before each spray. In cases where the inhaler has not been used for more than 5 days, prime the inhaler again by releasing 4 test sprays into the air, away from the face, shaking well before each spray.

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