Duloxetine (Page 11 of 13)

14.4 Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathic Pain in Adults

The efficacy of duloxetine for the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy in adults was established in 2 randomized, 12-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trials in adult patients having diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain (DPNP) for at least 6 months (Study DPNP-1 and Study DPNP-2). These trials enrolled a total of 791 patients of whom 592 (75%) completed the trials. Patients enrolled had Type I or II diabetes mellitus with a diagnosis of painful distal symmetrical sensorimotor polyneuropathy for at least 6 months. The patients had a baseline pain score of ≥4 on an 11-point scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain). Patients were permitted up to 4 grams of acetaminophen per day as needed for pain, in addition to duloxetine. Patients recorded their pain daily in a diary.

Both trails compared duloxetine 60 mg once daily or 60 mg twice daily with placebo. Study DPNP-1 additionally compared duloxetine 20 mg with placebo. A total of 457 patients (342 duloxetine, 115 placebo) were enrolled in Study DPNP-1 and a total of 334 patients (226 duloxetine, 108 placebo) were enrolled in Study DPNP-2.

Treatment with duloxetine 60 mg one or two times a day statistically significantly improved the endpoint mean pain scores from baseline and increased the proportion of patients with at least a 50% reduction in pain scores from baseline. For various degrees of improvement in pain from baseline to study endpoint, Figures 3 and 4 show the fraction of patients achieving that degree of improvement in Studies DPNP-1 and DPNP-2, respectively. The figures are cumulative, so that patients whose change from baseline is, for example, 50%, are also included at every level of improvement below 50%. Patients who did not complete the trial were assigned 0% improvement. Some patients experienced a decrease in pain as early as week 1, which persisted throughout the trial.

Figure 3: Percentage of DPNP Adult Patients Achieving Various Levels of Pain Relief as Measured by 24-Hour Average Pain Severity (Study DPNP-1)

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Figure 4: Percentage of DPNP Adult Patients Achieving Various Levels of Pain Relief as Measured by 24-Hour Average Pain Severity (Study DPNP-2)

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14.5 Fibromyalgia

Adult Trials in Fibromyalgia

The efficacy of duloxetine for the management of fibromyalgia in adults was established in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, fixed-dose trials in adult patients meeting the American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia (a history of widespread pain for 3 months, and pain present at 11 or more of the 18 specific tender point sites). Study FM-1 was three months in duration and enrolled female patients only. Study FM-2 was six months in duration and enrolled male and female patients. Approximately 25% of participants had a comorbid diagnosis of MDD. Studies FM-1 and FM-2 enrolled a total of 874 patients of whom 541 (62%) completed the trials. A total of 354 patients (234 duloxetine, 120 placebo) were enrolled in Study FM-1 and a total of 520 patients (376 duloxetine, 144 placebo) were enrolled in Study FM-2 (5% male, 95% female). The patients had a baseline pain score of 6.5 on an 11-point scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worse possible pain).

Studies FM-1 and FM-2 compared duloxetine 60 mg once daily or 120 mg daily (given in divided doses in Study FM-1 and as a single daily dose in Study FM-2) with placebo. Study FM-2 additionally compared duloxetine 20 mg with placebo during the initial three months of a six-month trial.

Treatment with duloxetine 60 mg or 120 mg daily statistically significantly improved the endpoint mean pain scores from baseline and increased the proportion of patients with at least a 50% reduction in pain score from baseline. Pain reduction was observed in patients both with and without comorbid MDD. However, the degree of pain reduction may be greater in patients with comorbid MDD. For various degrees of improvement in pain from baseline to study endpoint, Figures 5 and 6 show the fraction of patients achieving that degree of improvement in Studies FM-1 and FM-2, respectively. The figures are cumulative so that patients whose change from baseline is, for example, 50%, are also included at every level of improvement below 50%. Patients who did not complete the trial were assigned 0% improvement. Some patients experienced a decrease in pain as early as week 1, which persisted throughout the trial. Improvement was also demonstrated on measures of function (Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaires) and patient global impression of change (PGI). Neither trial demonstrated a benefit of 120 mg compared to 60 mg, and a higher dosage was associated with more adverse reactions and premature discontinuations of treatment.

Figure 5: Percentage of Adult Fibromyalgia Patients Achieving Various Levels of Pain Relief at Study Endpoint as Measured by 24-Hour Average Pain Severity (Study FM-1)

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Figure 6: Percentage of Adult Fibromyalgia Patients Achieving Various Levels of Pain Relief at Study Endpoint as Measured by 24-Hour Average Pain Severity (Study FM-2)

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Additionally, the benefit of up-titration in non-responders to duloxetine delayed-release capsules at 60 mg/day was evaluated in a separate trial (Study FM-3). Adult patients were initially treated with duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 mg once daily for eight weeks in open-label fashion. Subsequently, completers of this phase were randomized to double-blind treatment with duloxetine delayed-release capsules at either 60 mg once daily or 120 mg once daily. Responders were defined as patients who had at least a 30% reduction in pain score from baseline at the end of the 8 week treatment. Patients who were non-responders at 8 week were no more likely to meet response criteria at the end of 60 weeks of treatment if blindly titrated to duloxetine delayed-release capsules 120 mg as compared to those who were blindly continued on duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 mg.

14.6 Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain in Adults

Duloxetine delayed-release capsules are indicated for the treatment of chronic musculoskeletal pain in adults. This has been established in trials in adult patients with chronic low back pain and chronic pain due to osteoarthritis.

Trials in Chronic Low Back Pain in Adults

The efficacy of duloxetine delayed-release capsules in chronic low back pain (CLBP) in adults was assessed in two double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of 13-weeks duration (Studies CLBP-1 and CLBP-2), and one of 12-weeks duration (CLBP-3). Studies CLBP-1 and CLBP-3 demonstrated efficacy of duloxetine delayed-release capsules in the treatment of CLBP. Patients in all trials had no signs of radiculopathy or spinal stenosis.

Study CLBP-1: Two hundred thirty-six adult patients (N=115 on duloxetine delayed-release capsules, N=121 on placebo) enrolled and 182 (77%) completed 13-week treatment phase. After 7 weeks of treatment, duloxetine-treated patients with less than 30% reduction in average daily pain and who were able to tolerate 60 mg once daily had their duloxetine delayed-release capsules dosage, in a double-blinded fashion, increased to 120 mg once daily for the remainder of the trial. Patients had a mean baseline pain rating of 6 on a numerical rating scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain). After 13 weeks of treatment, patients taking duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60-120 mg daily had a significantly greater pain reduction compared to patients taking placebo. Randomization was stratified by the patients’ baseline NSAIDs use status. Subgroup analyses did not indicate that there were differences in treatment outcomes as a function of NSAIDs use.

Study CLBP-2: Four hundred and four patients were randomized to receive fixed dosages of duloxetine delayed-release capsules daily or a matching placebo (N=59 on duloxetine delayed-release capsules 20 mg, N=116 on duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 mg, N=112 on duloxetine delayed-release capsules 120 mg, N=117 on placebo) and 267 (66%) completed the entire 13-week trial. After 13 weeks of treatment, none of the three duloxetine delayed-release capsules dosages showed a statistically significant difference in pain reduction compared to placebo.

Study CLBP-3: Four hundred and one patients were randomized to receive fixed doses of duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 mg daily or placebo (N=198 on duloxetine delayed-release capsules, N=203 on placebo), and 303 (76%) completed the trial. Patients had a mean baseline pain rating of 6 on a numerical rating scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain). After 12 weeks of treatment, patients taking duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 mg daily had significantly greater pain reduction compared to patients taking placebo.

For various degrees of improvement in pain from baseline to study endpoint, Figures 8 and 9 show the fraction of patients in Studies CLBP-1 and CLBP-3 achieving that degree of improvement, respectively. The figures are cumulative, so that patients whose change from baseline is, for example, 50%, are also included at every level of improvement below 50%. Patients who did not complete the trial were assigned the value of 0% improvement.

Figure 8: Percentage of Adult Patients with CLBP Achieving Various Levels of Pain Relief as Measured by 24-Hour Average Pain Severity (Study CLBP-1)

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Figure 9: Percentage of Adult Patients with CLBP Achieving Various Levels of Pain Relief as Measured by 24-Hour Average Pain Severity (Study CLBP-3)

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Trials in Chronic Pain Due to Osteoarthritis in Adults

The efficacy of duloxetine delayed-release capsules in chronic pain due to osteoarthritis (OA) in adults was assessed in 2 double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trials of 13-weeks duration (Study OA-1 and Study OA-2). All patients in both trials fulfilled the ACR clinical and radiographic criteria for classification of idiopathic OA of the knee. Randomization was stratified by the patients’ baseline NSAIDs-use status.

Patients assigned to duloxetine delayed-release capsules started treatment in both trials at a dose of 30 mg once daily for one week. After the first week, the dose of duloxetine delayed-release capsules was increased to 60 mg once daily. After 7 weeks of treatment with duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 mg once daily, in Study OA-1 patients with sub-optimal response to treatment (<30% pain reduction) and tolerated duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 mg once daily had their doseincreased to 120 mg. However, in Study OA-2, all patients, regardless of their response to treatment after 7 weeks, were re-randomized to either continue receiving duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 mg once daily or have their dosage increased to 120 mg once daily for the remainder of the trial. Patients in the placebo treatment groups in both trials received a matching placebo for the entire duration of trials. For both trails, efficacy analyses were conducted using 13-week data from the combined duloxetine delayed-release capsules 60 mg and 120 mg once daily treatment groups compared to the placebo group.

Study OA-1: Two hundred fifty-six patients (N=128 on duloxetine delayed-release capsules, N=128 on placebo) enrolled and 204 (80%) completed the trial. Patients had a mean baseline pain rating of 6 on a numerical rating scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain). After 13 weeks of treatment, patients taking duloxetine delayed-release capsules had significantly greater pain reduction than patients taking placebo. Subgroup analyses did not indicate that there were differences in treatment outcomes as a function of NSAIDs use.

Study OA-2: Two hundred thirty-one patients (N=111 on duloxetine delayed-release capsules, N=120 on placebo) enrolled and 173 (75%) completed the trial. Patients had a mean baseline pain of 6 on a numerical rating scale ranging from 0 (no pain) to 10 (worst possible pain). After 13 weeks of treatment, patients taking duloxetine delayed-release capsules did not show a significantly greater pain reduction than patients taking placebo.

In Study OA-1, for various degrees of improvement in pain from baseline to study endpoint, Figure 10 shows the fraction of patients achieving that degree of improvement. The figure is cumulative, so that patients whose change from baseline is, for example, 50%, are also included at every level of improvement below 50%. Patients who did not complete the trail were assigned the value of 0% improvement.

Figure 10: Percentage of Adult Patients with OA Achieving Various Levels of Pain Relief as Measured by 24-Hour Average Pain Severity (Study OA-1)

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