SSRIs and SNRIs, including duloxetine delayed-release capsules, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Concomitant use of aspirin, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, warfarin, and other anti-coagulants may add to this risk. Case reports and epidemiological studies (case-control and cohort design) have demonstrated an association between use of drugs that interfere with serotonin reuptake and the occurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events related to SSRIs and SNRIs use have ranged from ecchymoses, hematomas, epistaxis, and petechiae to life-threatening hemorrhages.
Patients should be cautioned about the risk of bleeding associated with the concomitant use of duloxetine delayed-release capsules and NSAIDs, aspirin, or other drugs that affect coagulation.
Severe skin reactions, including erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), can occur with duloxetine delayed-release capsules. The reporting rate of SJS associated with duloxetine delayed-release capsules use exceeds the general population background incidence rate for this serious skin reaction (1 to 2 cases per million person years). The reporting rate is generally accepted to be an underestimate due to underreporting.
Duloxetine delayed-release capsules should be discontinued at the first appearance of blisters, peeling rash, mucosal erosions, or any other sign of hypersensitivity if no other etiology can be identified.
Discontinuation symptoms have been systematically evaluated in patients taking duloxetine delayed-release capsules. Following abrupt or tapered discontinuation in adult placebo-controlled clinical trials, the following symptoms occurred at 1% or greater and at a significantly higher rate in duloxetine delayed-release capsules-treated patients compared to those discontinuing from placebo: dizziness, headache, nausea, diarrhea, paresthesia, irritability, vomiting, insomnia, anxiety, hyperhidrosis, and fatigue.
During marketing of other SSRIs and SNRIs (serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors), there have been spontaneous reports of adverse events occurring upon discontinuation of these drugs, particularly when abrupt, including the following: dysphoric mood, irritability, agitation, dizziness, sensory disturbances (e.g., paresthesias such as electric shock sensations), anxiety, confusion, headache, lethargy, emotional lability, insomnia, hypomania, tinnitus, and seizures. Although these events are generally self-limiting, some have been reported to be severe.
Patients should be monitored for these symptoms when discontinuing treatment with duloxetine delayed-release capsules. A gradual reduction in the dose rather than abrupt cessation is recommended whenever possible. If intolerable symptoms occur following a decrease in the dose or upon discontinuation of treatment, then resuming the previously prescribed dose may be considered. Subsequently, the physician may continue decreasing the dose but at a more gradual rate [see Dosage and Administration (2.7)] .
In adult placebo-controlled trials in patients with major depressive disorder, activation of mania or hypomania was reported in 0.1% (4/3779) of duloxetine delayed-release capsules-treated patients and 0.04% (1/2536) of placebo-treated patients. No activation of mania or hypomania was reported in DPNP, GAD, or chronic musculoskeletal pain placebo-controlled trials.
Activation of mania or hypomania has been reported in a small proportion of patients with mood disorders who were treated with other marketed drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder. As with these other agents, duloxetine delayed-release capsules should be used cautiously in patients with a history of mania.
The pupillary dilation that occurs following of many antidepressant drugs including duloxetine delayed-release capsules may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy. The pupillary dilation that occurs following use of many antidepressant drugs including duloxetine delayed-release capsules may trigger an angle closure attack in a patient with anatomically narrow angles who does not have a patent iridectomy.
Duloxetine delayed-release capsules have not been systematically evaluated in patients with a seizure disorder, and such patients were excluded from clinical studies. In adult placebo-controlled clinical trials, seizures/convulsions occurred in 0.02% (3/12,722) of patients treated with duloxetine delayed-release capsules and 0.01% (1/9513) of patients treated with placebo. Duloxetine delayed-release capsules should be prescribed with care in patients with a history of a seizure disorder.
In adult placebo-controlled clinical trials across indications from baseline to endpoint, duloxetine delayed-release capsules treatment was associated with mean increases of 0.5 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure and 0.8 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure compared to mean decreases of 0.6 mm Hg systolic and 0.3 mm Hg diastolic in placebo-treated patients. There was no significant difference in the frequency of sustained (3 consecutive visits) elevated blood pressure. In a clinical pharmacology study designed to evaluate the effects of duloxetine delayed-release capsules on various parameters, including blood pressure at supratherapeutic doses with an accelerated dose titration, there was evidence of increases in supine blood pressure at doses up to 200 mg twice daily. At the highest 200 mg twice daily dose, the increase in mean pulse rate was 5 to 6.8 beats and increases in mean blood pressure were 4.7 to 6.8 mm Hg (systolic) and 4.5 to 7 mm Hg (diastolic) up to 12 hours after dosing.
Blood pressure should be measured prior to initiating treatment and periodically measured throughout treatment [see Adverse Reactions (6.7)] .
Both CYP1A2 and CYP2D6 are responsible for duloxetine delayed-release capsules metabolism.
Potential for Other Drugs to Affect Duloxetine Delayed-Release Capsules
CYP1A2 Inhibitors — Co-administration of duloxetine delayed-release capsules with potent CYP1A2 inhibitors should be avoided [see Drug Interactions (7.1)] .
CYP2D6 Inhibitors — Because CYP2D6 is involved in duloxetine delayed-release capsules metabolism, concomitant use of duloxetine delayed-release capsules with potent inhibitors of CYP2D6 would be expected to, and does, result in higher concentrations (on average of 60%) of duloxetine delayed-release capsules [see Drug Interactions (7.2)] .
Potential for Duloxetine Delayed-Release Capsules to Affect Other Drugs
Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6 — Co-administration of duloxetine delayed-release capsules with drugs that are extensively metabolized by CYP2D6 and that have a narrow therapeutic index, including certain antidepressants (tricyclic antidepressants [TCAs], such as nortriptyline, amitriptyline, and imipramine), phenothiazines and Type 1C antiarrhythmics (e.g., propafenone, flecainide), should be approached with caution. Plasma TCA concentrations may need to be monitored and the dose of the TCA may need to be reduced if a TCA is co-administered with duloxetine delayed-release capsules. Because of the risk of serious ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death potentially associated with elevated plasma levels of thioridazine, duloxetine delayed-release capsules and thioridazine should not be co-administered [see Drug Interactions (7.9)] .
Other Clinically Important Drug Interactions
Alcohol — Use of duloxetine delayed-release capsules concomitantly with heavy alcohol intake may be associated with severe liver injury. For this reason, duloxetine delayed-release capsules should not be prescribed for patients with substantial alcohol use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Drug Interactions (7.15)] .
CNS Acting Drugs — Given the primary CNS effects of duloxetine delayed-release capsules, it should be used with caution when it is taken in combination with or substituted for other centrally acting drugs, including those with a similar mechanism of action [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) and Drug Interactions (7.16)] .
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