Duloxetine (Page 5 of 18)

5.13 Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia may occur as a result of treatment with SSRIs and SNRIs, including duloxetine delayed-release capsules. In many cases, this hyponatremia appears to be the result of the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH). Cases with serum sodium lower than 110 mmol/L have been reported and appeared to be reversible when duloxetine delayed-release capsules were discontinued. Elderly patients may be at greater risk of developing hyponatremia with SSRIs and SNRIs. Also, patients taking diuretics or who are otherwise volume depleted may be at greater risk [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)] . Discontinuation of duloxetine delayed-release capsules should be considered in patients with symptomatic hyponatremia and appropriate medical intervention should be instituted.
Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, difficulty concentrating, memory impairment, confusion, weakness, and unsteadiness, which may lead to falls. More severe and/or acute cases have been associated with hallucination, syncope, seizure, coma, respiratory arrest, and death.

5.14 Use in Patients with Concomitant Illness

Clinical experience with duloxetine delayed-release capsules in patients with concomitant systemic illnesses is limited. There is no information on the effect that alterations in gastric motility may have on the stability of duloxetine delayed-release capsule’s enteric coating. In extremely acidic conditions, duloxetine delayed-release capsules, unprotected by the enteric coating, may undergo hydrolysis to form naphthol. Caution is advised in using duloxetine delayed-release capsules in patients with conditions that may slow gastric emptying (e.g., some diabetics).

Duloxetine delayed-release capsules have not been systematically evaluated in patients with a recent history of myocardial infarction or unstable coronary artery disease. Patients with these diagnoses were generally excluded from clinical studies during the product’s premarketing testing.

Hepatic Impairment Avoid use in patients with chronic liver disease or cirrhosis [see Dosage and Administration (2.6), Warnings and Precautions (5.2), and Use in Specific Populations (8.9)] .

Severe Renal Impairment — Avoid use in patients with severe renal impairment, GFR <30 mL/min. Increased plasma concentration of duloxetine delayed-release capsules, and especially of its metabolites, occur in patients with end-stage renal disease (requiring dialysis) [see Dosage and Administration (2.6) and Use in Specific Populations (8.10)] .

Glycemic Control in Patients with Diabetes — As observed in DPNP trials, duloxetine delayed-release capsules treatment worsens glycemic control in some patients with diabetes. In three clinical trials of duloxetine delayed-release capsules for the management of neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy, the mean duration of diabetes was approximately 12 years, the mean baseline fasting blood glucose was 176 mg/dL, and the mean baseline hemoglobin A 1c (HbA 1c ) was 7.8%. In the 12-week acute treatment phase of these studies, duloxetine delayed-release capsules were associated with a small increase in mean fasting blood glucose as compared to placebo. In the extension phase of these studies, which lasted up to 52 weeks, mean fasting blood glucose increased by 12 mg/dL in the duloxetine delayed-release capsules group and decreased by 11.5 mg/dL in the routine care group. HbA 1c increased by 0.5% in the duloxetine delayed-release capsules and by 0.2% in the routine care groups.

5.15 Urinary Hesitation and Retention

Duloxetine delayed-release capsules are in a class of drugs known to affect urethral resistance. If symptoms of urinary hesitation develop during treatment with duloxetine delayed-release capsules, consideration should be given to the possibility that they might be drug-related.
In post marketing experience, cases of urinary retention have been observed. In some instances of urinary retention associated with duloxetine delayed-release capsules use, hospitalization and/or catheterization has been needed.

5.16 Laboratory Tests

No specific laboratory tests are recommended.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are described below and elsewhere in the labeling:

6.1 Clinical Trial Data Sources

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The stated frequencies of adverse reactions represent the proportion of individuals who experienced, at least once, a treatment-emergent adverse reaction of the type listed. A reaction was considered treatment-emergent if it occurred for the first time or worsened while receiving therapy following baseline evaluation. Reactions reported during the studies were not necessarily caused by the therapy, and the frequencies do not reflect investigator impression (assessment) of causality.
Adults — The data described below reflect exposure to duloxetine delayed-release capsules in placebo-controlled trials for MDD (N=3779), GAD (N=1018), OA (N=503), CLBP (N=600), DPNP (N=906), and another indication (N=1294). The population studied was 17 to 89 years of age; 65.7%, 60.8%, 60.6%, 42.9%, and 94.4% female; and 81.8%, 72.6%, 85.3%, 74.0%, and 85.7% Caucasian for MDD, GAD, OA and CLBP, DPNP, and another indication, respectively. Most patients received doses of a total of 60 to 120 mg per day [see Clinical Studies (14)].
Children and Adolescents— The data described below reflect exposure to duloxetine delayed-release capsules in pediatric, 10-week, placebo-controlled trials for MDD (N=341) and another indication (N=135). The population studied (N=476) was 7 to 17 years of age with 42.4% children age 7 to 11 years of age, 50.6% female, and 68.6% white. Patients received 30 to 120 mg per day during placebo-controlled acute treatment studies. Additional data come from the overall total of 822 pediatric patients (age 7 to 17 years of age) with 41.7% children age 7 to 11 years of age and 51.8% female exposed to duloxetine delayed-release capsules in MDD and another indication clinical trials up to 36-weeks in length, in which most patients received 30 to 120 mg per day.

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